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20 Cards in this Set

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Which receptors are involved in opsonization?
CR1, CR3, CR4.
They bind to iC3b (or in the case of CR1, C3b) to recruit macrophages, monocytes, leukocytes, B-cells, and FDC's.
Which receptors are involved in immune complex clearance?
CR1.
They bind to C3b and iC3b and allow RBC's to transport immune complexes to the liver.
Which receptors are involved in inflammation - endothelial activation?
C5a-R, C3a-R.
They recruit endothelial cells and mast cells.
Which receptors are involved in inflammation - recruitment and activation of phagocytes?
C5a-R.
They recruit phagocytes.
Which receptors are involved in regulation of the adaptive immune response by binding to B-cell co-receptors?
CR2.
They bind to C3d, iC3b, C3dg, which are co-stimulatory for activating B-cells.
How is complement regulated by decay?
Spontaneous decay will degrade the activating component of complement, usually by hydrolysis. This prevents unbound complement from activating and damaging cells unnecessarily.
Free C3b will undergo spontaneous decay almost immediately after being released.
How is complement regulated by the classical pathway?
The C1INH protein will cause dissociation of the C1-q-r-s complex by dissociating C1r and C1s from the activated C1 complex.
How does DAF regulate the complement reaction?
Binds either C4b (classical) or C3b (alternative), inhibiting both complement pathways.
(No cofactor is required).
How does MCP regulate the complement reaction?
Binds either C4b (classical) or C3b (alternative), inhibiting both complement pathways.
(Cofactor I is required).
How does CR1 regulate the complement reaction?
Binds either C4b (classical) or C3b (alternative), inhibiting both complement pathways.
(Cofactor I is required).
How does C4BP regulate the complement reaction?
Binds only to C4b to inhibit the classical pathway.
(Requires cofactor I).
How does Factor H regulate the complement pathway?
Binds only to C3b (competitively with Factor B) to inhibit the alternative pathway.
(Requires cofactor I).
How does Properdin (Factor P) regulate the complement pathway?
It is a positive regulator that enhances C3bBb activity in the alternative pathway by stabilizing it and increasing its half-life.
How is MAC formation regulated in the complement pathway?
CD59 (protectin) prevents the last phase of assembly of C5b-9 at the final C8/C9 stage.
What is hereditary angioedema?
A C1INH deficiency that leads to increased spontaneous complement activation, including the formation of anaphylatoxins and other complement products. Result is edema, abdominal pain, and swelling caused by stress.
Treatment: C1INH infusion therapy.
What is paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH)?
A rare GPI (glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol) protein-linked deficiency, particularly DAF and protectin. All blood cells are susceptible to hemolysis by the complement pathway.
What diseases are caused by Factor H and I deficiencies?
Glomerulonephritis, and hemolytic uremic syndrome.
What diseases are caused by DAF/MCP homologue deficiencies in mice?
Increased loss of pregnancy in mice.
Why does a C1, C2, or C4 deficiency increase the prevalence of autoimmune diseases?
Complement typically binds to an apoptotic cell and assists in its removal. A deficiency in this pathway may prevent apoptotic cells from clearing, and result in re-presentation through APC's. This might break tolerance.
What are some therapeutic approaches to complement disease?
Block activated complement and introduce regulatory proteins.