Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/72

Click to flip

72 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Each chapter opens with a _____ (a short story or scenario) to stimulate your active reading and active learning.
Vignette
If an activity is developmentally appropriate, it takes into account knowledge about child development, individual children, and their social and cultural environments. True or False.
True
Following a review of child development through preschool and primary grade years, seven methods of observation are presented in "Through the Looking Glass". The authors are committed to studying not only "how" to observe but also "what" to observe. True or False.
True
What does NAEYC stand for?
National Association for the Education of Young Children
What does ACEI stand for?
Association for Childhood Education International
Describe one core value of NAEYC's Code of Ethical Conduct.
-Appreciating childhood as a unique and valuable stage of the human life-cycle
-Basing our work with children on knowledge of child development
-Appreciating and supporting the close ties between the child and family
-Recognizing that children are best understood and supported in the context of family, culture, community, and society
-Respecting the dignity, worth, and uniqueness of each individual (child, family member, and colleague)
-Helping children and adults achieve their full potential in the context of relationships that are based on trust, respect, and positive regard
According to Marion Wright Edelman, we are fortunate that children who come from families with few resources have access to the best early childhood educational programs. True or False.
False
When teachers try to adapt their instruction to children's individual needs, abilities, and interests, they are following the teaching philosophy of _____.
Differentiated Instruction
Authentic assessment results from...
-scores on a standardized test
-report cards with letter grades
-pass/fail tests of physical, cognitive, psychosocial, and creative development
-observation of naturally occuring activities
Observation in naturally occuring activities
Describe two reasons to observe in the Early Childhood classroom.
-Chart developmental growth (physical, cognitive, psychosocial, and creative) for each child
-Evaluate each child's strengths and limitations from a realistic perspective
-Analyze specific problems
-Plan appropriate curriculum, materials, responses, stratagies, and interactions based on individual needs
-Plan responsive environments indoors and outdoors
-Maintain records for study teams, conferences, and ongoing feedback to parents
-Arrive at a comprehensive understanding of each child or a teacher through the application of several observational methods
-Appraise teacher practices, and design staff development
Trained teachers observe on a daily basis and use the information gathered to plan appropriate programs.
True
The teacher's role in the cycle of observation is:
a-
b-
c-
d-
a-observing
b-recording
c-planning
d-communicating
State the two cornerstones to effective daily observations.
Flexibility and commitment
A collection of observational records and work samples for one child, usually kept for a period of one year, is a _____.
Portfolio
Which topic below is not an appropriate topic to observe in the early childhood classroom...
-memory skills
-IQ
-empathy
-problem-solving
b-IQ
Name two important guidlines to follow when practicing observation (name all).
-Clarify the purpose of your observation
-Schedule the visit
-Come equipped with the nessacary materials
-Select a position from which to observe
-Note the "lay of the land"
-Check your bias and emotional responses
-Respond in a natural way to children's inquiries
Minimizing subjectivity is one of the most troublesome skills in sound observation. True or False.
True
To check if an observer has been objective to a reasonable degree, one question to ask is...
a-would another observer concur with the same description
b-is it easy to understand what the observer saw
-has the observer recorded reasonable child behavior
-would the observer be likely to observe the same thing on another day
a-would another observer concur with the same description
Is the following statement an example of objective or subjective recording...
-The child is happy as she uses fluid hand-over-hand motions to cross the horizontal bars on the playground.
Subjective
Which of the following statements contains a red flag word and what word is it?
-There are 15 children in the class-7 girls and 8 boys
-The child walked, scraping the toe of his right show for about 5 feet, until he reached the table with the puzzles
-The teacher rings a chime and warns the children that it is clean-up time in 5 more minuets
-The children squirm and talk to each other, seldom participating in the 45-min circle time
d-seldom
A running record is a descriptive narrative, unhampered by premature interpretations, that reports the actions and verbalizations of a child in detail. The running record stands alone as raw, qualitative data and is available for later study- stimulating evaluation and profitable follow-through plans.
True
The heading of a running record includes (check all that apply)
-Center or School/Age level or Grade
-Tuition information
-Date and time of observation
-Observer
-Weather
-Child/Age
-Teacher
-Assistant Teacher
-Parents
-Description of child's clothes
-Center or School/Age level or Grade
-Date and time of observation
-Observer
-Child/Age
-Teacher
-Assistant Teacher
The running record is written in the...
a-past tense
b-present tense
c-future tense
b-present tense
The conclusions in a running record are written in the...
a-past tense
b-present tense
c-future tense
a-past tense
Is the following sentence factual or subjective? "Roland (7;3) struggles to write a short description of our trip to the nursery to buy vegetables for planting. He bothers his neighbors to detract attention from his clumsy handwriting."
Subjective
Running records provide such a wealth of information that they should be posted on the bulletin board for parents to read. True or False.
False
A running record of a child working in the sand area may yield conclusions about her...
a-physical development
b-cognitive development
c-psychosocial development
d-creative development
e-all of the above
e-all of the above
Write a factual sentence to describe the girl with paint in the photograph on p. 120.
With her left arm bent at the elbow and fingers spread, the girl spreads paint over her left hand and lower arm with her right hand.
Instead of writing that a child "says" something, an observer might use a more descriptive work, such as mumbles, exclaims, reports, describes, explains, informs, or summarizes. What are two descriptive words or phrases to use instead of "runs"?...
-runs with flat feet
-lopes
-_____
-_____
-runs with short strides
-runs with extended strides
-gallops
-runs with arms held stifly at sides
-runs with arms pumping
Running records yield...
a-qualitative data
b-quantitative data
b-quantitative data
An anecdotal record is an observational method used to summarize a single developmental incident after it occurs. True or False.
True
Observing and recording a child's developmental progress through anecdotal records requies...
a-an advanced degree
b-little time
c-an observational instrument
d-an abundance of details
b-little time
Anecdote can easily be used to collect _____ data in all areas of growth.
qualitative
When using the journalistic approach to writing anecdotes, the contents state what five elements of an observed behavior?
who, what, where, when, and how
Using an in-the-nutshell recording format, anecdotes are written...
a-before the incident takes place
b-while the incident is happening
c-after the incident occurs
d-during a discussion of the incident
c-after the incident occurs
In addition to documenting children's ongoing development, state two other purposes for using anecdotal recordings in the early childhood classroom...
a-_____
b-_____
a-planning
b-parent conferences
Anecdotal record-keeping necessitates the use of minimizing _____ to the best of one's ability, a through _____ of child development, the _____ to proficiently write an incident in concise form, and the _____ to regular recording for each child.
subjectivity, understanding, ability, and committment
Read the following statements and circle the one that is considered a specific guideline for writing anecdotes...
-Be as inconspicious as possible so that children don't know you're watching them
-Write exactly what is happening in the present time
-Be objective, facutal, and detailed
-Be aware of significant happenings in each child's daily activities
-All of the above
-Be aware of significant happenings in each child'd daily activities
Analyze the following anecdote for incorrect or correct documentation as in Practice Activity 6.1...
-Nigel (6; 1) and Joelle (5; 9) were starting numbers, each topping the other's number until Nigel said "Infinity. That't the biggest number of all." When the teacher asked what else is infinite, Nigel replied as he gestured a tumbling motion with his hand, "Words, they just keep coming out of your mouth." (Psychosocial- Language)
Correct- uses quotes for a language anecdote and records who, what, and how. Recording where and when are not essential.
Anecdotes are often considered the backbone of portfolios. True or False.
True
Checklists produce narrative details about children's activities in the classroom. True or False.
False
A checklist is a register of items that the observer marks off if they are present. True or False.
True
Checklist users should test children individually, asking them to execute each item as it appears on the checklist. True or False.
False
Checklists are used primarily to assess the current characteristics of...
a-a child
b-a teacher
c-a curriculum
d-an environment
e-a child or teacher
f-a curriculum or environment
g-a child, teacher, curriculum, or environment
g- a child, teacher, curriculum, or environment
Checklist designers who are familiar with their topics do not need to pilot test their instruments. True or False.
False
Choose an item that is most clear for a kindergarten checklist on entry knowledge about books...
a-child demonstrates knowledge about books
b-child turns pages in a picture book from front to back
c-child has been informed about the front cover, back covr, title, and author of a picture book
d-child has a good understanding of the relation between illustrations and text in a picture book
b-child turns pages in a picture book from front to back
An observational instrument is __________
a device used to collect data, information, and evidence
Checklists are valued for...
-producing qualitative data
-being simple and time-efficient
-eliminating the need to research the topic in libraries and classrooms
b- being simple and time-efficient
Teachers who use checklists to assess their students' progress need not write anecdotal records. True or False.
False
Rating scales are a useful observational tool when teachers want to assess the _____ of specific traits, characteristics, or conditions using a predesigned instrument.
quality
Two of the most popular rating scale designs in the early childhood classroom are graphic and numerical. True or False.
true
Two cautions teachers must be watchful to avoid when constructing or using rating scales are _____ and ______.
observer bias, error of central tendency
One fo the limitations of both rating scales and checklists is that they provide narrative descriptions based on direct observations. True or False.
false
The adjectives used to rate the items on the continuum are referred to as...
a-authentic assessors
b-descriptors
c-graphic organizers
d-catagory values
b- desriptors
When designing a rating scale, be sure to choose clear and distinctive items, rejecting _____ terms.
ambiguous
When rating scales have an uneven number of descriptors, the tendency to rate down the middle is called _____.
error of central tendency
Rating scales can be used to assess children, teachers, ______, and ______.
programs, envorinments
One difference between a checklist and a rating scale is...
a-a checklist records the presence or absence of an item, and a rating scale records the degree to which and item is present
b-a checklist primarily assesses individual children, and a rating scale primarily assesses environments
c-a checklist gathers narrative data during a specific time period, and a rating scale gathers specified data on a structured form
d-a checklist uses descriptors on a continuum, and a rating scale uses not indicators
a- a checklist records the presence or absence of an item, and a rating scale records the degree to which an item is present
A rating scale uses a similar heading as the running record or a checklist does, but a rating scale heading more frequently includes directions. True or False.
true
What is authentic assessment?
It is a method of assessments of young children that relies heavily on the results of observations of children's development, and demonstrated performances during authentic, not contrived activities.
Give a description of a running record.
A running record is a continuous observation of a behavior stream for a particular period of time.
The observer does not look for or interpret any specific behavior.
The goal is to gather as much raw data, or qualitative data, as possible.
What are the purposes of a running record?
To obtain a well-writtern running record that is a rich account of naturally occuring behavior.
To gain insights in behavior and development.
To learn about the many aspects of a child's total development.
To get to know a new child in the classroom.
The plan supportive and stimulating daily activities.
What are the guidlines for writing running records?
Clarify the purpose of your observation
Schedule your visit
Come equipped with the nessacary matertials
Select a position from which to observe
Become familiar with the layout of the classroom
Respond you children's inquiries about your presence
Fill in the heading for your observational stratagy
Check your own biases and emotional responses. Practice objectivity
Prepare a heading
Provide a space in the right margin for comments
Observe for 10 min or less
Write exactly what is happening in the present tense
Record only the facts
Record behaviors in sequence
Use abbreviations or short phrases if helpful. Go back and fill in needed detail
Use descriptive words
Write a conclusion in the past tense
Give a description of a checklist.
A register of behaviors, skills, or characteristics that the observer marks off if they are present.
Useful checklists have clear items that leave little room for personal interpretations.
Checklists usually investigate easily observed behaviors and skills within their natural contexts.
Checklists may be filled out during or after authentic observation.
Information may be gathered from a single observation or several.
What are the guidelines for checklists?
Select an appropriate topic
Find or construct a checklist that is based on research and has items that are carefully worded
Make a single observation or several observations. You may also check data from other obs. instruments
Fill out the checklist during or after the observation
Interpret the data
Make follow-through plans
Give a description of anecdotal records.
The fundamental aim of the anecdotal record is to document significant and ongoing evidence of children's development through selective observations.
Teachers observe and record behavioral patterns, changes, progress, milestones, or uncommon happenings.
Typical topics include language and literacy development, social interactions, problem solving skills, motor competencies, creative characteristics, interests, and achievements.
What are the purposes of anecdotal records?
To chronicle a child's development
To plan appropriate environmental support, activities, responses, and experiences
To create a story about an individual, a holistic understanding of the individual
To create a portfolio
To have information for parent-teacher conferences
What is the journalistic approach?
Records factual accounts of the...
-Who, what, where, when, how
-Of a SINGLE incident
What are the guidelines for anecdotal records?
Review developmental characteristics of the group being observed
Choose a significant happening in the child's daily activities
Jot down key words or brief notes
Enter the date of observation, the child's name, and the child'd age or grade
Transcribe the key words into readable sentences
Write in past tense using the journalistic approach
Be factual, objective, and consise
Summarize
State the developmental significance
Write one or two anecdotes for each child on a weekly basis
Enter the anecdotes in the child's portfolio
Give a description for rating scales.
Observational instruments used to assess the quality of a particular trait, characteristic, or attribute, based on predetermined criteria
Ratinf scales can be used to evaluate children, teachers, programs, or environments
The observer is asked to make an evaluation of the listed characteristics by assigning a value to each along the continuum
Judgements can be based on direct observations, or in some situations on overall impressions
What is the purpose of rating scales?
To evaluate children, teachers, environments, or programs in a specified area
To provide information about developmental change over time
To support children's learning and development
To plan for individuals and groups
To communicate with parents
What are the guidelines for rating scales?
Select an appropriate topic
Find or construct a rating scale that is based on research, has items that are carefully worded, and has a well designed recording form that includes a heading
Select ratings based on direct observations, past observations, or overall impressions
Interpret the data
Make follow through plans