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28 Cards in this Set

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diabetes mellitus
fasting blood sugar
insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus
Addison disease
occurs when the adrenal glands do not produce enough of the hormone cortisol and, in some cases, the hormone aldosterone.
This causes arrested physical and mental development, dystrophy of bones and soft parts, and lowered basal metabolism. It is a congenital problem and is treated by giving thyroid hormone.
Cushing syndrome
complex of symptoms caused by hyperadrenocorticism due either to a neoplasm of the adrenal cortex or adenohypophysis, or to excessive intake of glucocorticoids. Symptoms may include adiposity of the face, neck, and trunk; kyphosis from osteoporosis of the spine; hypertension; diabetes mellitus; amenorrhea and hypertrichosis (excessive hair production) in females; impotence in males; dusky complexion with purple striae (stretch marks); polycythemia; and muscular wasting and weakness. When secondary to excessive secretion of corticotropin (ACTH) by a pituitary adenoma
diabetes insipidus
chronic excretion of very large amounts of pale urine, causing dehydration and extreme thirst; ordinarily results from inadequate output of pituitary antidiuretic hormone
diabetes mellitus
metabolic disease in which carbohydrate utilization is reduced and that of fat and protein is enhanced
a medical or genetic condition that usually results in an adult height of 4'10" or shorter, among both men and women’ frequently diagnosed cause of short stature is achondroplasia, a genetic condition that results in disproportionately short arms and legs
Growth hormone deficiency involves abnormally short stature with normal body proportions
abnormal overgrowth; excessive size and stature, due to excessive secretion of growth hormone during childhood before the closure of the bone growth plates, which causes overgrowth of the long bones and very tall stature.
excessive secretion of insulin by the pancreatic islets, resulting in hypoglycemia - an abnormally diminished concentration of glucose in the blood, which may lead to tremulousness, cold sweat, piloerection, hypothermia, and headache; when chronic and severe it may cause central nervous system manifestations that in rare cases can even be fatal
dangerously high levels of ketones (ketones are acids that build up in the blood)
in adults or acquired cretinism. These patients have decreased metabolic rate, anemia, large tongue, and slow speech, puffiness of hands and face, coarse and edematous skin, loss and dryness of hair, mental apathy, drowsiness and sensitivity to cold. Giving replacement thyroid hormone treats the patients.
a usually benign, well-encapsulated, lobular, vascular tumor of chromaffin tissue of the adrenal medulla. Because of increased secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine, hypertension is a cardinal symptom; it may be persistent or intermittent. During severe attacks, there may be headache; sweating; palpitation and tremor; pallor or flushing of the face; nausea and vomiting; pain in the chest and abdomen; and paresthesias of the extremities
syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone
inability to excrete dilute urine, retention of water within the body, and low sodium levels. most common causes of SIADH are brain infections and surgery, neoplasm, and drug side effects . Treatment is restriction of fluid intake
6-hour glucose tolerance test
glucose ingested in a fasting state, blood glucose measured hourly for 6 hours; determines if patient has hypoglycemia or diabetes mellitus
blood chemistry, electrolytes
electrolytes - a substance that dissociates into ions when fused or in solution, and thus becomes capable of conducting electricity. The electrolytes monitored include:
sodium - functions in the body to maintain osmotic pressure, acid-base balance, and to transmit nerve impulses.
potassium - needed for proper nerve and muscle action
chloride - influences osmotic pressure, it also helps monitor acid-base balance and water balance
calcium - involved in bone metabolism, protein absorption, fat transfer muscular contraction, transmission of nerve impulses, blood clotting, and cardiac function
fasting blood sugar
measures amount of glucose in the blood
glucometer testing
finger prick to test blood for blood sugar level
insulin production test
to help evaluate insulin production, diagnose an insulinoma (insulin-producing pancreatic islet cell tumor), and to help determine the cause of hypoglycemia
thyroid tests
T4 or serum thyroxine - chief function is to increase the rate of cell metabolism; essential for central nervous system maturation and regulates a number of other functions.
T3 or triiodothyronine - "tissue-active" form of thyroid hormone - most of thyroid hormone is T4
urine dipstick test
urine test for the presence of blood, protein, or sugar; a test strip dipped into urine, allowed to change color and then compared to a chart to determine how much blood is in the urine
excision of the thyroid gland – usually just part of it