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136 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
the radicle is the a)primary root b)primary shoot
a)primary root
the plumule is the a)primary root or b)primary shoot
b)primary shoot
the radicle grows downward through a protective sheath called ________from which the primary root develops
Roots that grow from the shoot axis just at or above the soil surface (not from the radicle)
adventitious roots
protects emerging plumule, is a sheath like leaf
Pistillates are a)male or b)female and appear at the _____
base of one or more sheath leaves
Staminates are a)male or b)female and appears at the _____of the plant
an ovary of a monocot develops into a fruit called a __________
between cotyledons on a dicot lies a growing apical or ______ meristem
stem region above cotyledans
stem regions below cotyledans
study of components of cells and their functions
chromoplasts with chlorophyl are ________responsible for photosynthesis in leaves and some stems
Within the nucleas are chromosomes which form long lengths of ______and contain genetic info coding for all cell funtions, and reproduction
DNA (genetic codes are transcribed from DNA in the nucleus and trasnlated into proteins on the ribosomes
two basic kinds of tissues distinguished from plants
permenant or meristematic tissue
tap roots develop downward together w/limited lateral growth include
carrots beets ,alfalfa turnips, cotton oaks and pecans
fibrous root branch in many directions and include
grain crops, grasses, shallow root trees
Principle tissue of cylindrical zone under the epidermis extending inward to the phloem(cortex) when cells are wounded, they heal and regenerate other kinds of tissue, found in all parts of plants
parenchyma tissue
a complex tissue that coducts water and dissolved minerals from root to all other parts of the plant
a complex tissue that conducts food and metabolits from the leaves to the stem, flowers, roots, and storage organs
dissolved mineral nutrients and water are absorbed by extension of the epidermal cells called
root hairs
the cork cambium (phellogen) is meristematic tissue that provides cells that grow both outward and inward
outward cells become cork cells, the inward phelloderm
pore openings in trees and shrub that allow inward and outward diffusion of gases
underground stem and grows horizontally
stem growing horizontally above ground
Thickedned compresses stems that grow underground
underground stems which survive the cold of winter
attatches blade to the stem
the flat this part that the leaf is made of
stipules lie at the base of the
Complete flowers consist of
sepals, petals, stamens, and pistil
flowers w/stamens and pistils
perfect flowers
flowers w/stamens only,
w/pistils only
born both stamenate and pistilate flowers on the same plant
simple fruits w/single ovary formed from one flower, fleshy, semifleshy or dry
aggregate and multiple fruits form from several ovaries (strawberry)
classification below species
botonical variety
cultivars consist of clones and _____
propogated by vegetative methods are called
if propogated by seeds
more than one cultivar of a particular kind of plant, similar cultivars are classified into _______
groups (name of group is written within parentheses between the s pecies name and cultivar name and always capitalized
the leaf like scales that encirle the other flower parts are the
sepals collevtively
collevtive term for petals
perianth are collectively the ___and _____
sepals and petals
The stamen conists of a filament and anther which ___
produces pollen
collectively the stamens are called
pistil is composed of these three parts
stigma (receptive surface for pollen), style (tube connected to stigma, and the ovary which is attached to the placenta and deevelops into the seed after pollination and fertilization
simple pistil
one carpel
compound pistil
two plus fused carpels
carpels collectively
the white potato; enlarged flshy terminal portions of underground stems
protects the stem, the ____ of leaves and young stems have pores (stomata) which allow for the exchange of gasses
lies ust below the epidermis and encircles the inner core of vascular tissue, comprises parenchyma, collenchyma, and clerenchyma
endodermis is found in the _____and contain a casparian strip which is water proof
root only
the epidermis protects
stems, leaves, flowers, and roots
apical meristem are the part of the plant where___and produces epidermis, cortex, primary xylem, phloem, and central pith
above ground
division at tip of root or shoot
produces new cells mcrometers behind apical meristem, new internode growth of stem
subapical meristem
________meristem are just above the nodes in the lower region of leaf sheath divide
these meristems produce secondary growth, start below apical or subapical, they are vascular cambium
long tapered, dead cells that conduct water through pits (part of xylem)
phloem conducts food and metabolits from the leaevs to the stem, flowers, roots and storage organs
companion cells are part of phloem
"cultivated plants originated in 8 independant centers"
"cultivated plantes originated in noncenters and the plant species originated at same time over wide geographical spread"
maintain, evaluate, catalog, and distribute all types of plant germplams, give scientists gerplam needed to carry out work
National Plant Gerplasm System
2n chrom. number/diploid
in sex cells (egg and sperm) the number is reduced to half, 1n, or______
links two sugar bases in DNA
Hydrogen bond
sugar residues linked by phosphates are the backbone of ____
The four bases of DNA
cytosine = guanin
adenine = thymine
Uracil as base instead of thymine, contols growth process of cell, one more o2 atom than DNA
messenger rna carries genetic instructions just as transfer RNA does what
brings the amino acids to the ribosomes to construct proteins
a homologous chromosome
same gene/gene affecting the same trait
crossing over occurs during the pairing of two sets of
homologous chromosomes
gamete (1n) + male gamete (1n)= 2n or______
fertilization: male and femal gamete join to form
during fertilization one male gamete cobines w/two polar nuclei (1n each) to form what
the endosperm (3n in angiosperms)
angiosperms are
seed bearing plant which the female gamete is protected by enclosed ovary
produces pollen grains called microspores
autogamy is pollination within _______
the same flower
axillary bud is a bud formed where
in the axil of the leaf
a carpel is the ___reproductive organ in flowering plants
dioecious plants must be grown next to one another because_________
they are individual plants w/either the pistillate or staminate
lack of growth of seeds, buds, bulbs or tubers due to unfavorable environmental conditions (external or quiescence) or factors w/in the organ itself (internal or rest)
egg plus sperm to form zygote
genotype is teh genetic makeup of ____
a nucleaus or individual
the offspring of two plants differing in one or more mendelian characters
external physical appearance of an organism
perennial is a plant that grows
the fruit wall which develops from the ovary wall
plants in which all members have descended by self fertilization from a single homozygois individual
pure line
to scratch chip or nick seed coverings to aid germination and enhance the passage of water and gases
exposing imbnibed seeds to cool or warm tmps. for a period of time before germination in order to break dormancy
terminal buds are buds that are at the distal end of a _______
biennials an perennials have these meristems which produce secodary xylem and secondary phloem cells
vascular cambium
more than two sets of homologous chromosomes in vegetative cells
float test
float the seed, floaters are empty
tetrazolium test
part of seed living turns red, nonliving white, embryo red: viable, white:not viable
excised embryo test
for woody plants that dont respont to sample germination
seed coats impermeable to water and gas is called ___and can be fixed by weathering, microorganisms actions, or passive thru digestive tract of animals
seed coat dormancy
germination blocks embryo even though environmental conditions are favorable
embryo dormancy
stratification (chilling or heating to help embryo dormancy) requires
chilling temperatures, moisture, adequate o2, period of time
both seed coat and embryo dormancy, ex:redbud
double dormancy
plants that shed fruits before the embryo w/in the seed has matured enough to germinat
rudimentary embryos
chemicals blocking germination, fixed w/running water, can be in seed coat or pericarp (ovary wall_
chemical inhibitors
seeds ready to germinate after germination blocks are removed, but become dormant again because of an environmental condition
secodary dormancy
labeled w/white tag, produced in small amounts and under control of breeder, planted to produce foundation seed
breeder seed
multiplied from breeder seed, planted to produce registered seed,controlled by public or private foundation orgainzations, white tag
foundation seed
seed source for growers of certified seed and under control of registered seed producers
avail in larger quantities and sold to farmers, blue tag, known genetic identity and purity
Certified seed
moisture, temperature, aeration, light, no pathogenic organisms, and freedom from toxic amounts of salt are all _____-factors affecting germination
line is to propogation as ____is to asexual methods
clone...both maintain characteristics
annual dies after one year, the perennial does the same
t or f
f)perennial produces new seed from tear to year
completes lifecylce in two seasons
chimeras are mutations that affect the whole shoot t or f
f)only portion of shoot
genetic variation w/in a species that has adapted to a dif. environment, butis interfertile w/all other members of species
the _____allows for gas exchange in leaves
swollen underground base of a stem axis w/nodes and internodes
stem growing horizontally just at or slightly below soil surface
annuals are herbaceous (nonwoody) 1 growing season, what is biennial
herbaceous plants require two seasons, and perennials are herbaceous or woody````
anther and stigma same plant
self pollination
same cultivar is self pollination, different cultivars are
cross pollination
uses small pieces of tissue called explants to regenerate a new shoot system
micropropagation or tissue culture
new/improved plants developed not by hybridization, but by fusing protoplasts from cells of dif plants
protoplast fusion
embryo, seed coat, mother cells and microsporangium, ovule
megaspore, storage tissue, female gametophyte, pollen grains, sperms
proving a cultivar is yours
x equals geno (on a tetraploid is 68)
a ramet is
daughter plant from original or other ramets
original plant which the ramet is derived
water, xylem up
carbohydrates, phloem down
study of proteins
outer cortex, gives rise to cells that eventually become gametes
inner cortex vascular cylinder and pit
somatic cells carry______
2 copies of every chromosome
reproduction asexually thru seeds