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27 Cards in this Set

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Absorption
the retention of a product inside of an absorbent material; this is how a sponge soaks up liquid; it is important to note that absorbent materials show very little discrimination between materials, they will absorb a variety of materials
Adsorption
a method where the material interacts with a solid sorbent surface. The sorbate/hazmat liquid adheres to the surface of the sorbent and does not enter the inner spaces of the material, as with the case with absorption.
Alcohol Resistant AR-FFF
foams which are resistant to breakdown by water soluble materials or polar solvents; these foams are used on materials such as alcohol, lacquer thinner, and acetone; alcohol resistant aqueous film forming foam (AR-AFFF) is the alcohol resistant foam most responders are familiar with
Aqueous Film Forming Form (AFFF)
a combination of synthetic foaming agents and fluorochemical surfactants, capable of forming an aqueous film; this film, with its reduced surface tension, spreads rapidly providing the excellent knockdown ability; AFFF is nontoxic and biodegradable
Confinement
operations which attempt to control the flow or movement of product away from the point of release
Diking
temporary measure used to slow down, divert, or prevent the passage of a product
Dilution
the process of applying water (or solvent) to a material in an attempt to lower the concentration of the material to a level which is less harmful
Eductor
devices that create a venturi effect (reduced pressure) at a restricted flow point in the device, resulting in the syphoning or “pick up” of foam concentrate
fluoroprotein foam
protein based foam with fluorochemical surfactants added; the surfactants reduce the surface tension of the protein concentrate allowing more fluid movement and increasing fuel tolerance; fluoroprotein foams are often used in sub-surface injection
foam nozzles
induct air into the foam solution via the venturi effect; the foam solution is more effectively mixed with air in the nozzle and results in a more consistent foam with maximum expansion of agent
fog nozzles
11. produce foam bubbles by expelling tiny droplets of foam solution through the air; the air interacts with the foam solution like a child's bubble solution when a child blows bubbles
Mitigation
the act of lessening the force or impact of an incident
overflow dam
traps sinking, heavier-than-water materials behind the dam
polar solvent compatibility
the ability of a foam to form a blanket on a polar fuel; this foam is referred to as polar solvent foam, or alcohol resistant foam
protein foam
based on naturally occurring proteins, these foams are biodegradable and nontoxic; in some areas, these were termed “blood foams;” protein foam is dense, stable, and viscous; it requires a great deal of mechanical agitation and should be used with air-aspirating nozzles only
Remediation
the process of returning the scene to its original status; involves clean up operations
Retention
storing a released product in a makeshift holding area
underflow dam
built with a pipe placed lower on the upstream side and higher on the downstream side of the dam; this creates a water flow through the piping and traps the contaminants on the upstream side
vapor dispersion
spreading of hazardous vapors in order to reduce the hazard posed by the vapors
vapor suppression
covering a material which is giving off hazardous vapors
venturi system
a type of valve that produces air bubbles by drawing air into a stream of water flowing under pressure
weir dam
can be utilized to “skim” product off the top of a flowing body of water; a weir dam is typically constructed by placing chicken wire type fencing across a moving body of water and deploying sorbent material on the upstream side of the fence; the sorbent material must be large enough to be stopped by the fencing material the sorbent material will absorb the hazardous material off the surface of the water
Knockdown
is the speed which foam can extinguish a fire.
Manual Application Techniques
· The roll-on technique

· The bank-down technique

· The rain-down technique
· The roll-on technique
is used when the foam is applied on the ground near the front edge of the liquid pool fire—the foam then rolls across the surface of the fuel.
· The bank-down technique
is used when the foam is directed on to an object in or near the fire—the foam runs down the surface of the object and on to the pool of product.
· The rain-down technique
is used when the foam stream is directed in to the air above the fire/product and allowed to gently rain down on to the product.