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26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
3 Basic Components to conduct action
1. sensory input
2. integration
3. motor output
sensory input
sends natural messages to nerve cells then to brain or spinal cord
nerve cells
"interpet" or "weight" the signal and "decide" the appropriate response
motor output
-signals from the brain/spinal cord are sent to appropraite effectors
Specialized Cells
1. Neurons
a. nerve
b. excitable cells that generate and transmit messages
2. Glial Cells
a. supporting cells
b. outnumber the neurons 10 to 1
Functions of Glial
1. structurl function
2. protection
3. nurture of neurons
4. housekeeping function
5. insulation of nerves
6. develop nervous system
7. communication
Neuron Functions
-sensory: conduct info from receptors to central nervous system
-motor: carry info away from central nervous system to effectors
-interneurons: integrate info between sensory and motor (99% os bodies neurons)
repair of damaged nerve
-repair of cut or crushed nerve
-ends must align
-no obstacles
-doctors cn cut damaged nerve ends
action potential
-plays a key role in maintaining internal stability
-relies on sensory information in order to initiate a meaningful response
central nervous system
a. brain
b. spinal cord
peripheral nervous system
1. somatic nervous system
a. sensory nervous system
b. voluntary movements
2. autonomic nervous system
a. involuntary, unconscious activities which maintain a relatively stable internal environment
b. sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions
the brain
-3 lbs.
-13% of weight
protective coverings
-brain and spinal cord are very sensitive and fragile requiring protection from 3 sources
a. skeletal system
b. cerebrospinal fluid
c. menagies
Cerebrospinal Fluid
-circulates around the brain/spinal cord
-serves as liquid cushion preventing the crashing against cranium
-nourishes brain and removes waste materials
-formed by filtration of blood plasma through capallaries
-coverings that continosly run around the brain and spinal cord
1. Dura Mater
a. outside tought and leathery
2. Arachnoid
b. cobweb
3. Pia Mater
Reflex Arc
1. receptor
2. sensory neuron
3. association neuron
4. motor neuron
5. effector
brain stem
-medulla oblongat: upper portion
thalamus (inner chamber)
-"gateway" to the cerebral cortex
-sensory input from sense except smell
a. sorts info
b. groups it according to function
c. relays to the apporpriate brain region
-essential to maintaining a stable environment
-blood pressure
-heart rate
-body temp
-food intake
-regulations relases of pituitairy hormones
-produces ADH and Oxytocin
-center for emotions
-largest most prominent part of brain
-"conscious" part of the brain
-2 hemispheres
4 major lobes of brain
1. frontal
2. parietal
3. temporal
4. occipital
limbic system
-emotions: rage, fear, sorrow, joy, sexual pleasure
reticular activating system
-a filter for sensory input
-our brain is constantly flooded with sensory input (noises)
-activats with cerebral cortex
(determines intelligence, personality, etc.)
-functions in sensory: motor coordination
-produces smooth well timed movements
-controls equilibirum and posture
-stores learned motor patterns
aging and nervous system
-nerve cells lost
-decreased capacity to send impulses
-conduction velcoity decreases
-voluntary motor movements slow down
-reflex time for skeletal muscles increases
-exercise helps