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43 Cards in this Set

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Who were the Scribes?
Men trained to read and write so they could be employed in compsoing or recording private, public and religious documents.
What does the word "Sopherim (Hebrew)" actually mean?
Counters.
How did the Sopherim validate their copy against the orginial Scripture?
They devloped a devise of counting all the words and letters of each book in the O.T. After copying a paritcular book, they would count the word and letters and check this tally against the count of the manuscript that was being replicated.
How many mistakes were the Scribes allowed to make before they had to start over?
Three.
What were the most common typesof miserror?
All the letters of the Hebrew Text ran together, which allowed the possibility of misreading words.
How were the copies of the Sopherim finnally prevailed?
The MODEL TEXT and many of the dieviant manuscripts were vanished.
What did the Masoretes and the Sepherim have in common?
Their prime concern was the preservation of the Hebrew text; they sought to keep it accurate.
What would a Masorete do if a scribal error was made?
They would add in the margin what they thought was the proper reading. This occured about 1300 times.
What's the general significance of the Masoretic Text?
The genral significance is that it became the standard for all subsewuent copeis of the Hebrew Bible.
What was another significant contribution of the Masoretic Text?
It added VOWELS to the Hebrew Scripture, which greatly aided in pronouncation.
How did the Massoretes preserve the Hebrew Language in the scripture?
They inserted volwel points above and below the lines of the text. **REMEMBER THAT THEY ONLY ADDED A MEANS BY WHICH TO INSURE THE CORRECT PRONOUNCIATION OF THe TEXT, THEY DID NOT CHANGE THE TEXT ITSELF!*
What are the two ancient translations of the Hebrew Bible?
The samaritin Pentateuch and the Septhagint (meaning 70).
Was was one of the most important outcomes of the newly intermarried Jews and Isrialites?
That their nation WAS their own text of the Bible.
Did this new nation believe in the Pentateuch?
Most definitely; the believed the Pentateuch was the ONLY book insipired by God.
What was the Pentateuch?
The Pentateuch was the first five books of the Bible: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers Deuteronomy.
What's so important about the Pentateuch?
First and foremost, it is the independent tradition from the Masoretic Text and secondly that the oldest manuscripts ARE STILL in existence.
How much difference is there between the Samaritan Bible and the Smaritan Pentateuch?
It was discovered that there is LITTLE difference.
Why was it necessary that there be a Greek translation of the Bible?
The Jews sought to retain and pass on their religous heritage as well as the need to read and understand Scripture made this necessary.
What is the Septuagint?
The Septuagint (literally meaning 70) is the Greek translation, completed around 250-150 B.C.
Why is 70 such an important number?
It is believed that 70 scholars translated the Septuagint; though it wasn't done by a single group, or in the same time period.
Is the Septuagint liberal or strict in its translation?
Owing the the manifold translations it undergone, the Septuagint is obviously liberal (it is not uniform) in its trnaslation.
Why is it generally believed that the Septuagint is more reliable than either that of the Masetoritic text or the Semeritain Pantateuch?
Because of the fact the Septuagint is said to sretch as far back as the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th centuries, wheras the other two stretch as far back as the nineth century.
Where is one of the largest manuscripts located?
St. Petersburg, Russia.
How old are the MAJOR Hebrew Manuscripts?
The major Hebrew Manuscripts are no older than 900 A.D.; not very helpful to scholars checking the accuracy of the Hebrew Scriptures.
Why is this so?
This is due to the lack of lack of early maunscripts discarded- as was habit of the Scribes.
What year were the Dead Sea Scrolls found?
1947
Where were they found?
In the area of Qumran on the NORTHWEST coast of the the Meditterian Sea.
What is the only O.T. book not included in the Dead Sea scrolls?
Esther.
Why is Isaiah so important concerning the Dead Sea Scrolls?
Because Isaiah is the earlest known copy of any complete book of the Bible.
What did these manuscripts include concerning the Jews who copeid them btween 250 B.C. and 68 A.D.?
The scrols included books of the O.T. commentaries, religious books and community documents.
What was the "Teacher of Righetousness", parallel to the Scripture?
This sect regarded istself as the true Israel and they awaited the establishment of divine rule on earth.
What is one of the most important archaeological finds for biblical scholars?
The Biblical manuscripts unearthed in this remote and arid region makes this one of the most important archaeological finds for biblical scholars.
How were the Scrolls found in the caves of Qumran effected?
This discovery altered the "age difference" in the Dead Sea Scroll: it was now 1000 years older than any previous Hebrew manuscript of the old Testament.
What did the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls confirm?
The precise transmission of the Masorete.
What year were the Dead Sea Scrolls found?
1947
Where were they found?
In the area of Qumran on the NORTHWEST coast of the the Meditterian Sea.
What is the only O.T. book not included in the Dead Sea scrolls?
Esther.
Why is Isaiah so important concerning the Dead Sea Scrolls?
Because Isaiah is the earlest known copy of any complete book of the Bible.
What did these manuscripts include concerning the Jews who copeid them btween 250 B.C. and 68 A.D.?
The scrols included books of the O.T. commentaries, religious books and community documents.
What was the "Teacher of Righetousness", parallel to the Scripture?
This sect regarded istself as the true Israel and they awaited the establishment of divine rule on earth.
What is one of the most important archaeological finds for biblical scholars?
The Biblical manuscripts unearthed in this remote and arid region makes this one of the most important archaeological finds for biblical scholars.
How were the Scrolls found in the caves of Qumran effected?
This discovery altered the "age difference" in the Dead Sea Scroll: it was now 1000 years older than any previous Hebrew manuscript of the old Testament.
What did the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls confirm?
The precise transmission of the Masorete.