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31 Cards in this Set

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80-conductor IDE cable
An IDE cable that has 40 pins but uses 80 wires, 40 of which are ground wires designed to reduce crosstalk on the cable. The cable is used by ATA/100 and ATA/133 IDE drives.
ANSI (American National Standards Institute)
A nonprofit organization dedicated to creating trade and communications standards.
ATAPI (Advanced Technology Attachment Packet Interface)
An interface standard, part of the IDE/ATA standards, that allows tape drives, CD-ROM drives, and other drives to be treated like an IDE hard drive by the system.
autodetection
A feature of system BIOS and hard drives that automatically identifies and configures a new drive in CMOS setup.
block mode
A method of data transfer between hard drive and memory that allows multiple data transfers on a single software interrupt.
boot record
The first sector of a floppy disk or logical drive in a partition; it contains information about the disk or logical drive. On a hard drive, if the boot record is in the active partition, then it is used to boot the OS. Also called boot sector.
boot sector
Another term for a boot record.
cluster
One or more sectors that constitute the smallest unit of space on a disk for storing data (also referred to as a file allocation unit). Files are written to a disk as groups of whole clusters.
DMA (direct memory access) transfer mode
A transfer mode used by devices, including the hard drive, to transfer data to memory without involving the CPU.
EIDE (Enhanced IDE)
A standard for managing the interface between secondary storage devices and a computer system. A system can support up to six serial ATA and parallel ATA IDE devices or up to four parallel ATA IDE devices such as hard drives, CD-ROM drives, and DVD drives.
external SATA (eSATA)
standard that specifies full SATA cabling for external disks.
FAT12
The 12-bit wide, one-column file allocation table for a floppy disk, containing information about how each cluster or file allocation unit on the disk is currently used.
file allocation unit
Another term for a cluster.
floppy disk drive (FDD)
a drive that can hold either a 5 ¼ inch or 3 ½ inch floppy disk.
hard drive controller
The firmware that controls access to a hard drive contained on a circuit board mounted on or inside the hard drive housing. Older hard drives used firmware on a controller card that connected to the drive by way of two cables, one for data and one for control.
head
The top or bottom surface of one platter on a hard drive. Each platter has two heads.
high-level formatting
Formatting performed by means of the DOS or Windows Format program (for example, FORMAT C:/S creates the boot record, FAT, and root directory on drive C and makes the drive bootable). Also called OS formatting.
host adapter
The circuit board that controls a SCSI bus supporting as many as seven or fifteen separate devices. The host adapter controls communication between the SCSI bus and the PC.
IDE (Integrated Device Electronics)
A hard drive whose disk controller is integrated into the drive, eliminating the need for a controller cable and thus increasing speed, as well as reducing price. See also EIDE.
Logical Unit Number (LUN)
A number assigned to a logical device (such as a tray in a CD changer) that is part of a physical SCSI device, which is assigned a SCSI ID.
low-level formatting
A process (usually performed at the factory) that electronically creates the hard drive tracks and sectors and tests for bad spots on the disk surface.
operating system formatting
another term for high-level formatting.
parallel ATA
An older IDE cabling method that uses a 40-pin flat data cable or an 80-conductor cable and a 40-pin IDE connector. See also serial ATA.
PIO (Programmed Input/Output) transfer mode
A transfer mode that uses the CPU to transfer data from the hard drive to memory. PIO mode is slower than DMA mode.
read/write head
A sealed, magnetic coil device that moves across the surface of a disk either reading data from or writing data to the disk.
SCSI (Small Computer System Interface)
A fast interface between a host adapter and the CPU that can daisy chain as many as 7 or 15 devices on a single bus.
SCSI ID
A number from 0 to 15 assigned to each SCSI device attached to the daisy chain.
serial ATA (SATA)
An ATAPI cabling method that uses a narrower and more reliable cable than the 80-conductor cable. See also parallel ATA.
serial ATA cable
An IDE cable that is narrower and has fewer pins than the parallel IDE 80-conductor cable.
terminating resistor
The resistor added at the end of a SCSI chain to dampen the voltage at the end of the chain.
zone bit recording
A method of storing data on a hard drive whereby the drive can have more sectors per track near the outside of the platter.