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22 Cards in this Set

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( c. 247– c. 183 bc) Carthaginian general in the second of the Punic Wars , son of Hamilcar Barca . One of the greatest generals of ancient times, in 218 bc he invaded n Italy after crossing the Alps with 40,000 troops and a force of elephants.
( c. 460– c. 400 bc) Greek historian. A commander in the Peloponnesian War , his History of the Peloponnesian War is a determined attempt to write objective history, and it displays a profound understanding of human motives. ...
2d cent. BC, Roman matron, daughter of Scipio Africanus Major. She was the wife of Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus and mother of the Gracchi . She refused to remarry after her husband's death, devoting herself to her children, whom she educated well and inspired with a sense of civic duty. ...
106–43 bc) Roman politician, philospher, and orator. A leader of the Senate, he exposed Catiline's conspiracy (63 bc). He criticized Mark Antony in the Senate, and when Octavian came to power Antony persuaded him to have him executed. His fame rests largely on his political philosophy and oratory. Among his greatest speeches were Orations Against Catiline and the Phillipics. His rhetorical and philosophical works include De Amicitia and De Officiis.
Saint (1020–85) Pope (1073–85), b. Hildebrand. He condemned lay investiture, simony and clerical marriage. Emperor Henry IV opposed the reforms and deposed Gregory (1076). Gregory responded by excommunicating Henry.
Gregory VII
1098-1179, German nun, mystic, composer, writer, and cultural figure, known as the Sibyl of the Rhine. An aristocrat educated in a Benedictine convent, she began experiencing mystical visions as a child. Entering religious life c.1116, she became an abbess in 1136 and founded her own convent at Rupertsberg near Bingen c.1147. Mystical and worldly, she was deeply immersed in religious life yet also involved in political and cultural affairs, maintaining a lively and wide-ranging correspondence. Her theological magnum opus, Scivias (c.1151), contains 26 visions. Today she is best known for her richly lyrical liturgical poetry set to her own innovative monophonic chants, composed mainly in the 1140s and collected in the 1150s. She also wrote a medical encyclopedia, scientific treatises, works of natural history, lives of saints, and other works. Widely proclaimed a saint, she has not been canonized; nonetheless, her feast day is celebrated on Sept. 17.
Hildegard of Bingen
A voluntary alliance formed by the Greek city-states in 478–447 BC to seek revenge for losses suffered during the GREEK-PERSIAN WARS. All members paid tribute in the form of ships or money, the latter being stored on the sacred island of Delos, the League's nominal base. At first, under the leadership of Athens, the League actively sought to drive Persian garrisons out of Europe and to liberate the Greek cities of Asia Minor. PERICLES encouraged the conversion of the alliance into the beginnings of the ATHENIAN EMPIRE.
Delian League
(c.1181–1226) Italian monk, founder of the Franciscan order. Born into a wealthy family, he renounced his inheritance in favour of a life of poverty after experiencing a personal call to rebuild the semi-derelict church of San Damiano of Assisi. He soon attracted followers, founding the Franciscan order in 1209 and drawing up its original rule (based on complete poverty).
St. Francis of the Assisi
Greek poet who was writing during the early 6th century bc. Her passionate love poetry, written on the island of Lesbos (from which the word ‘lesbian’ derives) was regarded by Plato as the expression of “the tenth Muse”.
Sappho of Lesbos
384?-322 BC, Greek orator, generally considered the greatest of the Greek orators. He was a pupil of Isaeus, and—although the story of his putting pebbles in his mouth to improve his voice is only a legend—he seems to have been forced to overcome a weak voice and delivery. After years of private practice in law, he became a political orator in 351 BC when he delivered the first of three Philippics. Philip II of Macedon had been steadily building power, and He saw clearly the danger to Greek liberty in the great Macedonian state. The Philippics (the second in 344, the third in 341) and the three Olynthiacs (349), in which he urged aid for Olynthus against Philip, were all directed toward arousing Greece against the conqueror. The third of the Philippics is generally considered the finest of his orations. In On the Peace (346) He urged an end to the Phocian War. In 343 he accused his rival, Aeschines, of accepting Macedonian bribes in a speech entitled (as was Aeschines' defense) On the False Legation.
c.55 BC-AD 29, Roman matron; mother of the Roman emperor Tiberius . She first married Tiberius Claudius Nero. Tiberius was his son. In 38 BC, Augustus forced her husband to divorce her so that he might marry her himself. Her son Drusus Senior (see Drusus ), born soon after her remarriage, was not the son of Augustus but of her first husband. On the accession of her son Tiberius, Livia Drusilla attempted unsuccessfully to control the government. She was known for her dignity, intelligence, and ambition.
100–44 bc) Roman general and statesman. A great military commander and brilliant politician, he defeated formidable rivals to become dictator of Rome. After the death of Sulla, He became military tribune. As pontifex maximus, he directed reforms in 63 bc that resulted in the Julian calendar. He formed the First Triumvirate in 60 bc with Pompey and Crassus, instituted agrarian reforms and created a patrician-plebeian alliance. He conquered Gaul for Rome (58–49 bc) and invaded Britain (54 bc). Refusing Senate demands to disband his army, he provoked civil war with Pompey. He defeated Pompey at Pharsalus in 48 bc and pursued him to Egypt, where he made Cleopatra queen. After further victories, he returned to Rome in 45 bc and was received with unprecedented honours, culminating in the title of dictator for life. He introduced popular reforms, but his growing power aroused resentment. He was assassinated in the Senate on March 15 by a conspiracy led by Cassius and Brutus. He bequeathed his wealth and power to his grandnephew, Octavian (later Augustus) who, together with Mark Antony, avenged his murder.
Julius Caesar
(742–814) (lit. Charles the Great) King of the Franks (768–814) and Holy Roman Emperor (800–14). The eldest son of Pepin III (the Short), he inherited half the Frankish kingdom (768), annexed the remainder on his brother Carloman's death (771), and built a large empire. He invaded Italy twice and took the Lombard throne (773). He embarked on a long and brutal conquest of Saxony (772–804), annexed Bavaria (788) and defeated the Avars of the middle Danube (791–96, 804). He undertook campaigns against the Moors in Spain. In 800 Pope Leo III consecrated him as Emperor, thus reviving the concept of the Roman Empire, and confirming the separation of the West from the Eastern Byzantine Empire. He encouraged the intellectual awakening of the Carolingian renaissance, set up a strong central authority and maintained provincial control through court officials. His central aim was Christian reform, both of church and laity, and he was convinced that God had made him emperor to undertake this holy work.
The central doctrine that calls on believers to combat the enemies of their religion. Religious obligation imposed upon Muslims through the Koran to spread Islam and protect its followers by waging war on non-believers. There are four ways in which Muslims may fulfil their jihad duty: by the heart, by the tongue, by the hand, and by the sword.
(c.485–c.425 bc) Greek historian. Regarded as the first true historian, his Histories are the first great prose work in European literature. His main theme was the struggle of Greece against the mighty Persian Empire in the Persian Wars, but he also provides an insight into the contemporary Mediterranean world.
(1304–74) Italian lyric poet and scholar. Most of his lyric poems, Rime sparse, have as their subject ‘Laura’, a woman idealized in the style of earlier poets but seen in a more realistic and human light. Other works, which include an autobiography (1342–58), further illuminate his belief in the compatibility of classical and Christian traditions.
Francesco Petrarch
(Latin; “Roman Peace”) State of comparative tranquility throughout the Mediterranean world from the reign of Augustus (27 – 14) to that of Marcus Aurelius ( 161–180). The concord also included North Africa and Persia. The empire protected and governed provinces, each of which legislated and administered its own laws while accepting Roman taxation and military control. It was the Pax Romana that ensured the survival and eventual transmission of the classical Greek and Roman heritage.
Pax Romana
(1138–93) ( Salah ad-din) Muslim general and founder of the Ayyubid dynasty. From 1152, he was a soldier and administrator in Egypt. Appointed grand vizier in 1169, he overthrew the Fatimids in 1171, and made himself Sultan of Egypt. After conquering most of Syria, he gathered widespread support for a jihad to drive the Christians from Palestine (1187). He reconquered Jerusalem, provoking the Third Crusade (1189). Saladin's rule restored Egypt as a major power and introduced a period of stability and growth.
Two important ecumenical councils of the Christian Church held in Nicaea (modern Iznik, Turkey). The first was convoked in ad 325 to resolve the problems caused by the emergence of Arianism. It promulgated a creed, affirming belief in the divinity of Christ. The second, held in 787, was summoned by the patriarch Tarasius to deal with the problem of the worship of icons.
Council of Nicaea
Medieval philosophy that attempted to join faith to reason by synthesizing theology with classical Greek and Roman thought. It was first explored by John Scotus Erigena in the 9th century, and by Anselm of Canterbury in the 11th century. Its greatest thinkers were Albertus Magnus and Thomas Aquinas in the 13th century, and Duns Scotus at the turn of the 14th century.
buying or selling of any spiritual benefit or office. The name is derived from Simon Magus , who tried to buy the gifts of the Holy Spirit from St. Peter (Acts 8). Simony is a very grave sin, and ecclesiastics who commit it may be excommunicated. The temporal price may be one of many kinds, e.g., money or high office. What is sold may be the performance of a sacrament or any other spiritual service; it is also simony to sell a benefice or endowment or other temporality to which anything spiritual is attached. Because of the frequency of simony at times in the history of the Roman Catholic Church, the legislation of the church is very strict; e.g., simony in the election of a pope invalidates the election (law of Julius II, 1503); no priest may ask for a baptismal fee in any way; and Mass stipends are fixed by the bishop and are governed by the expense of the Mass and the necessities of the priest. Since the Council of Trent the sale of indulgences is prohibited in any form, and no blessed article may be sold as blessed. The prevalence of simony was most important in bringing about the 11th-century papal reform movement.
is literally "a place for writing". refers to the room in medieval European monasteries devoted to the hand-copying of manuscripts by monastic scribes.