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54 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
which ribs articulate directly with the sternum via their costal cartilage?
1-7
which ribs articulate though another rib's costal cartilage?
8-10
which ribs don't articulate with the sternum?
11-12
the head of a rib articulates with which two vertebrae?
the ones above and below it (ie 5th rib with 4th and 5th vertebrae)
the tubercle of a rib articulates with which vertebrae?
the one on its level - ie 5th rib with 5th vertebrae
what is chyle?
lymph fluid involved in fat digestion from the intestines - often has a "milky" appearance
do lymph vessels have valves?
yes
where does most of the lymphatic fluid drain to?
the thoracic duct
where does the thoracic duct drain to?
venous circulation at the junction of the left subclavian and internal jugular veins
what parts of the body drain separately from the left side (lymph)?
the right upper extremity, the right side of the head, and the right side of the thorax
what do lymph nodes do?
they filter the lymph and act as sites of immunologic activity
what is it called when lymph nodes become enlarged?
lymphadenopathy
what layer of fascia is the breast in?
the superficial fascia
where does most breast lymph drain?
the axillary nodes
how many lactiferous ducts per breast lobe?
one
where is the retromammary space and what does it do?
it's deep to the breast tissue but superficial to the deep fascia; it allows some movement of the breast over the thoracic wall.
what is the upper outer quadrant of the breast called?
the axillary tail (of spence)
where does breast blood supply come from?
the internal thoracic artery, branches of the axillary artery, and the intercostal arteries
what joint is at the medial end of the clavicle?
the sternoclavicular joint
what joint is at the lateral end of the clavicle?
the acromioclavicular joint
what is the sternal angle an important marker of?
it's at the same level as the articulation of the second costal cartilage with the sternum
what makes up the thoracic cage?
12 ribs, 12 thoracic vertebrae, and the sternum
what's in each intercostal space?
three layers of intercostal muscle, and intercostal arteries, nerves, and veins
where do accessory nipples occur?
along the milk lines
what are beast alveoli?
glandular tissue at the ends of the ducts; only active during lactation
how do ribs move when we breathe?
coronally like a bucket handle, sagittally like a pump handle
where do the main vessels lie within the intercostal space?
at the superior margin of the space, partially protected by the rib
what's in the thoracic cage?
the heart, lungs, and some of the abdominal contents under the diaphragm
where does the apex of the lung extend to?
a few centimeters superior to the clavicle - it can be injured by a stab wound there
what lines the outer surface of the thoracic cavity?
the visceral pleura
what lines the internal surface of the thoracic cavity?
the parietal pleura
where is the pleural space?
between the visceral and parietal pleura
what does the pleural space normally contain?
a small amount of serous fluid
how does the sternum move when you breathe in?
up and out
what's a pleural reflection?
where the pleura reflects on to the diaphragm or mediastinum
what's a pleura recess?
where the two layers of pleura are in contact with each other.
what's a tension pneumothorax?
where there's air under tension in the pleural cavity and the lung can't inflate
what defines the individual lung segments?
an area supplied by a tertiary bronchus
what's a primary/main bronchus?
the bronchus to each lung
what's another name for a secondary bronchus?
lobar
what's another name for a tertiary bronchus?
segmental
how many lobes are in the right lung?
three
how many lobes are in the left lung?
two
what do bronchial arteries carry?
oxygenated blood from the aorta to nourish the bronchi
do the pulmonary arteries carry oxygenated blood?
no
where does lymphatic drainage of the lung go?
through the hilum
what happens during inspiration?
the diaphragm contracts and it moves inferiorly, the intercostal muslces contract and elevate the ribs up and out
does deep inspiration use different muscles than regular inspiration?
yes, it requires accessory muscles
what happens during expiration?
it's passive; all of the muscles return to their resting state
what is forced exhalation?
coughing; it requires abdominal wall muscles
where is the transverse thoracic plane?
it passes through the sternal angle and the intervertebral disc between T4 and T5 vertebrae
what does the transverse thoracic plane demarcate?
the beginnning and end of the aortic arch, the boundary between the middle and superior mediastinum, and the bifurcation of the trachea at the carina
where do the intercostal nerves travel?
between the innermost and internal intercostal muscles
where do the intercostal vessels travel?
between the innermost and internal intercostal muscles