Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/93

Click to flip

93 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Number of vertebrae
33
Characteristics of Cervical Verterbrae
Number: 7
The Include: Atlas (C1) and Axis (C2)
C3-C7 are "typical":
transverse foramina (through which, in all but C7, the vertebral arteries pass on their way to the head)
Characteristics of Thoracic Vertebrae
Number: 12
costal facets (where ribs connect)
inferoposteriorly angled spinous processes
Characteristics of Lumbar Vertebrae
Number: 5
large and thick (support bulk of body weight)
spinous processes point directly posteriorly and do not overlap (allows for lumbar puncture)
mammillary processes (between spinous and transverse process)
zygapophysial joints
(also called "facet joints")
allow gliding and are found between inferior articular process (of the more cranial vertebra) and the superior articular process (of the more caudal vertebra)
Characteristics of the sacral vertebrae
usually 5 fused vertebrae form sacrum
sacral canal (inferior continuation of the vertebral canal)
anterior and posterior sacral foramina (transmit the ventral and dorsal rami of the relevent spinal nerves)
Characteristics of the coccygeal vertebrae
Number: 2-5 (usually 4)
fuse together iwth increasing age
left and right coccygeal nerves exit between sacrum and coccyx
spinal curvatures
4 main in anterior-posterior direction
Primary:
thoracic and sacral (present in infants, related to hsape of vertebral bodies)
Secondary: (develop with age, related to shapes of the intervertebral discs)
Cervical and Lumbar curvatures
kyphosis
abnormal exaggeration of spinal curvatures
lordosis
exagerration of abnormal lateral curvature
scoliosis
abnormal lateral curvature
vertebrae are held together by
ligaments (connect bone to bone)
anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments
connect vertebral bodies together
ligamenta flava
ligaments that hold adjacent laminae together
interspinal and supraspinal ligaments
ligaments connecting adjacent spinous processes
nucleus pulposus
gelatinous material between vertebra below the C2
anulus fibrosis
thick concentric lamellae of strong connective tissue that hold the nucelus puplosus in place
intervertebral foramina
adjacent to the body complex, form the channel which the spinal nerves pass through to reach specific portions of the body
herniated disc
or herniated nucleus pulposes (HNP)
when nucleus pulposus escapes from wihin its anulus fibroses (usually postlaterally, where the anulus fibrosis is thinnest)
shrinking of vertebral column is primarily due to...
loss of nuclei pulposi water content with age
(makes up 1/4 of vertebral length in children)
general functions of vertebral column
supporting body
providing the joints and muscle attachments that permit motion
protects spinal cord and related structures
diameter of spinal cord is greatest where?
in the cervical and lumbosacral portions (where there are lots of nerve cell bodies- where motor impulses for extremities are generated) gray matter and spinal cord diameter in general are larger
spinal meninges
the three membranes covering the spinal cord:
the pia mater
the arachnoid
the dura matter
pia matter
closely applied to spinal cord (can't really remove)
arachnoid
external ot th epia, serves as container for the CSF
subarachnoid space
"intrathecal space"
during life is filled with CSF
also where...
anterior spinal artery and
2 posteriar spinal arteries travel in cranial-caudal direction
spinal anesthesia is delivered by injection into:
the subarachnoid space- directly into the CSF
dura mater
contiguous with the epineurium of the spinal nerves, external to the intervertebral foramina
subdural space
potential space in life, but can be separated (for example, by blood from a ruptured vessel)
epidural space
exists in life, loosely filled with fat and veins
denticulate ligaments
primarily responsible for holding the spinal cord in place
CT extending between pia and dura mater laterally, between the ventral and dorsal nerve rootlets and the filum terminale
filum terminale
a distal extention of the pia mater and vestigial spinal cord reaching the coccyx
spinal nerves
31 nerves, that are identified by spinal cord segment of origin and by numbers
pass information between spinal cord and associated dermatome
crainalmost 7 cervical nerves
emerge through intervertebral foramina cranial to the vertebrae of the same designation
C8 spinal nerve is located..
in the intervertebral foramina between the C7 and T1 cervical vertebrae
The more caudal spinal nerves are located...
in the intervertebral foramina caudal to the vertebrae of the same designation
herniated nucleus pulposes in the cervical region compresses what?
the nerve root exiting at that level (e.g. the C5-6 disk compresses the C6 nerve)
herniated disks in the lumbar region compress what?
the nerve exiting the intervertebral foramen one segment below the disk (e.g. HNP at the L4-5 level would compress the L5 nerve root and the L5-S1 disc compresses the S1 nerve root)
the spinal cord ends around...
the level of the L2 vertebra
cauda equina
"horse's tail" the collection of spinal nerves that pass through a long distal extension of subarachnoid space to reach the appropriate intervertebral foramen
tendons
connect muscle to bone
aponeuroses
tendons that form membranes between layers of muscle (papery)
muscles are typically innervated by
a single nerve, although multiple fibres may actually reach the muscle
if the superior portion of the trapezius contracts
the scapula will rotate laterally
if the inferior portion of the trapezius contracts the scapula will
rotate medially
in order for a muscle to relax or contract... what must happen?
its antagonist must contract or relax and ATP must be available
superficial muscles of the back
Trapezius
Lattisimus dorsi
Rhomboideus major and minor
Levator scapula

derived from hypomeres
innervated by ventral primary rami (except trapezius)
actually muscles of the upper limb
Trapezius- ORIGIN:
(proximal)
external occipital protuberence and medial third of the superior nuchal line of the occipital bone, ligammentum nuchae, spinous processes of the 7th Cervical vertebra and all 12 thoracic vertebra
Trapezius- INSERTION:
(distal):
Superior Fibers- insert into posterior border of the lateral third of clavicle
Middle Fibers- insert into the medial margin of the acromion and posterior border of the scapular spine
Inferior Fibers: converse to end in an aponeruosis inserted into the scapular spine
Trapezius- ACTION
upper and lower fibers act to rotate the scapula (for full abduction of the upper extremity0
upper fibers acting alone, elevate the shoulder and brace the shoulder girdle under weight,
central fibers- run horizontally and retract the shoulder
lower fibers draw the scapula downward.
when acting together, the scapula can be adducted and the head drawn backward
Trapezius- INNERVATION
Spinal Accessory nerve (NOT FROM BRACHIAL PLEXUS LIKE OTHER SHOULDER MUSCLES)
Latissimus Dorsi- ORIGIN:
(proximal) arises from a broad aponeruosis of the posterial layer of the thoracolumbar fascia, the spinous processes of the lower 6 Thoracic vertebrae, and fleshy digitations of the caudal-most 3 or 4 ribs, may also attach to iliac crest
Latissimus Dorsi- INSERTION:
(distal) intertubercular groove of the humerus
Latissimus Dorsi- ACTION:
extends, adducts, and medially rotates the humerus (ARM)
Latissimus Dorsi- INNERVATION
Thoracodorsal nerve (C6-C8)
Latissimus Dorsi- INNERVATION
Thoracodorsal Nerve (C6-C8)
Rhomboideus Major and Minor- ORIGIN
minor- from ligamentum nuchae and spinous processes of C7 and T1 vertebrae
major- from spinous processes of T2-T5 vertebrae
Rhomboideus Major and Minor- INSERTION
medial border of the scapula from the level of the scapula spine to the inferior angle
Rhomboideus Major and Minor- ACTION
retract the scapula and rotate it to depress the glenoid cavity
also fix the scapula to the thoracic wall
Rhomboideus Major and Minor- ACTION
dorsal scapular nerve (C4-C5)
most superficial back muscles are attached to what? and involved in movements of what?
the scapula
the upper limb
Levator scapulae- ORIGIN
(proximal) arises from the transverse processes of the first 4 cervical vertebrae
Levator Scapulae- INSERTION
(distal) insters into the superior portion of the medial (vertebral) border of the scapula
Rhomboideus Major and Minor- INNERVATION
Dorsal Scapular Nerve (C4 and C5)
Levator Scapulae- ACTION
(contraction helps shoulders shrug)elevates the superior angles of the scapula and tends to draw it medially
rotates the scapula so that the glenoid cavity is titlted inferiorly
when the scapula is held in a fixed position, the levator scapulae bends the neck laterally and roates it slightly toward the same time
Levator Scapulae- INNERVATION
by the 3rd and 4th cervical nerves from the cervical plexus and by a brance from the dorsal scapular nerve (C5) to the muscle's lower fibers
triangle of auscultation
bounded by the latissimus dorsi, medial border of scapula and the trapezius
gives good access to breath sounds because no muscle and very little tissue to interfere with lung sounds
Intermediate Muscles of the Back
derived from hypomeres
innervated by the ventral primary rami
thin and weak serratus posterior (superior and inferior) muscles
act on ribs as accessory muscles of respiration
Serratus Posterior Superior- ORIGIN
ligamentum nuchae and the spinous processes of C7-T3
Serratus Posterior Inferior- ORIGIN
spinous processes of the T11-L2 vertebrae
Serratus Posterior Superior- INSERTION:
four fleshy digitations attach the superior to the 2nd to 5th ribs
Serratus Posterior Inferior- INSERTION:
four flat digitations that insert into the inferior borders of the last 4 ribs
Serratus Posterior Superior- INNERVATION
ventral rami of T1-T4 spinal nerves
Serratus Posterior Inferior- INNERVATION
ventral rami of the T9-T12 spinal nerves
Serratus Posterior Superior- ACTION
elevates the ribs during respiration
Serratus Posterior Inferior- ACTION
pulls the ribs outward and downward, counteracting the inward pull of the diaphragm during respiration
The deep (intrinsic) back muscles
3 layers:
superficial- splenius msucles
intermediate later- erector spinae
deep layer- transversospinalis system of muscles
innervated primarily by the dorsal primary rami
Splenius Capitis and Cervicis- ORIGIN
ligamentum nuchae and spinous processes of C7-C6 vertebrae
Splenius capitis and cervicis- INSERTION
instert on the transverse processes of the neck (cervicis) or the skull (capitus)
Splenius Capitis and Cervicis: ACTION
extend the head and neck (w/ opposite partners)
laterally bend the head and neck to the side (when acting unilaterally)
Splenius Capitis and Cervicis: INNERVATION
capitis- innervated by dorsal rami of the middle cervical spinal nerves
cervicis- innervated by dorsal rami of lower cervical spinal nerves
Erector Spinae: ORIGIN
(inferior attachment) intermediate layer of deep back muscles
iliocostalis, longissimus and spinalis
arive by braod tendon from the posterior aspect of the iliac crest, posterior aspect of the sacrum, the sacral and inferior lumbar spinous processes, and the supraspinous ligament
Erector Spinae: INSERTION
(superior attachment)
iliocostalis muscles attach to the angles of lower ribs and cervical transverse processes

longissimus muscles- attach to the ribs between the tubercles and angles, to the transverse processes in the cervical vertebral regions and the mastoid process of the temporal bone

spinalis muscles- attach to the spinous processes in the upper thoracic region and mid-cervical region, and to the skull
Erector Spinae- ACTION:
together the iliocostalis, longissimus, and spinalis muscles extend the vertebral column and head
unilaterally- they bend the vertebral column laterally
Erector Spinae- INNERVATION
dorsal rami of respective spinal nerves in each region
Deep Layer of Deep Back Muscles
semispinalis
multifidus
rotators
semispinalis Capitis- ORIGIN
(inferior attachment) tendons from transverse processes of first 6 or 7 thoracic vertebrae and 7th cervical vertebra
Semispinalis Capitis- INSERTION
(superior attachment) between superior and inferior nuchal lines of the occipital bone
Semispinalis Capitis- ACTION
extends the head and rotates it so the face turns toward the opposite side
Semispinalis Capitis- INNERVATION
dorsal rami of cervical spinal nerves
Deep layer of Intrinisc Back Muscles- ORIGINATE
transverse spinal processes in lumbars to the spinous or transverse processes of vertebrae above
Tranversospinal Muscle- ACTION
stabilizing vertebrae during movements of the vertebral column and assisting in extension and rotary movement of the vertebrae
intersegmental (interspinous and intertrensverse) muscle- ORIGIN, INSERTION, ACTION
attach adjacent spinous and transverse processes, probably function as sensors for spine position