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59 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
cranial nerve I
olfactory (sensory)
smell
cranial nerve II
optic (sensory)
vision
cranial nerve III
oculomotor (mixed)
motor-most EOM movement, raise eyelids
parasympathetic-pupil constriction, lens shape
cranial nerve IV
trochlear (motor)
down and inward movement of eye
cranial nerve V
trigeminal (mixed)
motor-muscle of mastication
sensory-sensation of face and scalp, cornea, mucous membranes of mouth and nose
cranial nerve VI
abducens (motor)
lateral movement of eye
cranial nerve VII
facial (mixed)
motor-facial muscles, close eye, labial speech
sensory-taste (sweet, salty, sour, bitter) on anterior 2/3 of tongue
parasympathetic-saliva and tear secretion
cranial nerve VIII
acoustic (sensory)
hearing and equillibrium
cranial nerve IX
glossopharyngeal (mixed)
motor-pharynx (phonation and swallowing)
sensory-taste on posterior 1/3 of tongue, pharynx (gag reflex)
parasympathetic-parotid gland, carotid reflex
cranial nerve X
vagus (mixed)
motor-pharynx and larynx (talking and swallowing)
sensory-general sensation from carotid body, carotid sinus, pharynx, viscera
parasympathetic-carotid reflex
cranial nerve XI
spinal (motor)
movement of trapezius and sternomastoid muscles
cranial nerve XII
hypoglossal (motor)
movement of tongue
nervous system can be divided into 2 parts
central and peripheral
part of nervous system that includes the brain and spinal cord
central nervous system
part of nervous system that includes to 12 pairs of cranial nerves, 31 pairs of spinal nerves and all their branches
peripheral nervous system
# pairs of cranial nerves
12
# pairs of spinal nerves
31
CNS that carries sensory messages to the CNS from sensory receptors, motor messages from CNS out to muscles and glands, as well as autonomic messages that govern the internal organs and blood vessels
peripheral nervous system
cerebrum's outer layer of nerve cell bodies, which looks like "gray matter" because it lacks myelin
cerebral cortex
center for humans' highest functions, governing thought, memory, reasoning, sensation and voluntary movement
cerebral cortex
left and right half of cerebrum
hemisphere
hemisphere dominant in most (95%) people, including thoses who are left-handed
left hemisphere
4 lobes of hemisphere
frontal
parietal
temporal
occupital
lobe controls personality, behavior, emotion and intellectual functions
frontal lobe
controls motor and speech
broca's area
controls hearing, taste and smell
temporal lobe
lobe controls sensation
parietal lobe
controls motor coordination, equilibrium and balance
cerebellum
controls speech comprehension
wernicke's area
primary motor area of brain
precentral gyrus
bands of gray matter buried deep within the 2 cerebral hemispheres that form the subcortical associated motor system (the extrapyramidal system); conttol automated associated movements of the body, e.g., the arm swin alternating w/ the legs during walking
basal ganglia
main relay station for nervous system
thalamus
sites of contact between 2 neurons
synapses
major control enter w/ many vital functions: tem, hr, bp control, sleep center, anterior and posterior pituitary gland regulator and coordinator of autonomic nervous system activity and emotional status
hypothalamus
like a "black box" in that it adjusts and corrects voluntary movements, but operates entirely below conscious level
cerebellum
central core of brain consisting of mostly nerve fibers
brain stem
parts of brain stem
midbrain
pons
medulla
most anterior part of brain stem that still has basic tubular structure of spinal cord; merges into thalamus and hypothalamus; contains many motor neurons and tracts
midbrain
enlarged area containing ascending and descending fiber tracts
pons
continuation of spinal cord in brain that contains all ascending and descending fiber tracts connecting brain and spinal cord; has vital autonomic center (respiration, heart, GI function), as well asnuclei for cranial nerves VIII through XIII
medulla
long cylindrical structure about as big around as the little finger that occupies the upper 2/3 of vertebral canal; main highway for ascending and descending fiber tracts that connect brain to spinal nerves, and it mediates reflexes; its nerve cell bodies or gray matter are arranged in a butterfly shap w/ anterior and posterior "horns"
spinal cord
term used to described how the left cerebral cortex receives sensory info from and controls motor function to right side of body and vice versa
crossed representation
tract that contains sensory fibers that transmit sensations of pain, temperature and crude (or light) touch
spinothalamic tract
fibers carrying pain and temp sensations ascend which side of spinothalamic tract
lateral
fibers of crude touch form which side of spinothalamic tract
anterior
fibers that conduct the sensations of position, vibration and finely localized touch
(proprioception) posterior (dorsal) columns
w/o looking, you know where your body parts are in space and in relation to each other
position
feeling vibrating objects
vibration
w/o looking, you can identify familiar objects by touch
(stereognosis) finely localized touch
pain originating in these organs is referred, because no felt image exists in which to have pain; pain is felt "by proxy" by another body part that does have a felt image
heart
liver
spleen
neurons that are a complex of all descending motor fibers that can influence or modify the lower motor neurons
upper motor neurons
neurons located mostly in the PNS
lower motor neurons
bundle of fibers outside CNS
nerve
4 types of reflexes
deep tendon reflexes
superficial
visceral
pathologic
help body maintain balance and appropriate muscle tone
reflexes
myotatic reflex includes patellar or knee jerk
deep tendon reflexes
corneal reflex and abdominal reflex
superficial
organic reflex including pupillary response to light and accommodation
visceral
abnormal include Babinski's or extensor plantar reflex
pathologic