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34 Cards in this Set

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What are the 6 functions of integument?
Mnem:
1feel a gun (provide info of environment)
2need protection a condom (protect against abraison and and fluid loss)
3 Stressing (sweat wastes and water)
4.) Feel hot, so cool down (temp regulation)
5.) Fart ink (noxious agents)
6.) The virus has the gun (form ez and immune complexes a/g viral invasions)
What is the function of epidermis?
water barrier (keep in and out)
mechanical stress
bacterial invasion
What is dermis? Fibers?
it is dense irregular Ct
-mech strength and elasticity
-collagen Type 1 with few cells
What is deep to dermis? Is it skin?
Hypodermis,
no it is not skin cuz its too fat
What types of attachments between layers?
Dermis/Hypodermis
-can be loose (most areas)
-tight (as in palm in sole) due to interlocking

Junction between dermis and epidermis forms dermal ridges (papillae) and epidermal ridges
Fingerprints correspond to the dermal ridges
What type of skin is hypodermis?
Loose connective tissue- insulating layer and connects skin to underlying structures
Stratum basale?
Top 3
1.) single, cuboidal layer of cells
2.) desmosomes
3.) rapidly dividing-stratum germinativum

Bonus-keratinocytes with tonofilaments in CYTOPLASM
Stratum spinosum? 7 points?
several layers (1)
shrink away (2)
prickle cells (3)
tonofilaments(4) and cells similar to those of stratum basale
tonofilaments increase and clump into tonofibrils(5)
Membrane-coated granules or lamellar bodies with GLYCOLIPIDs (6)
MCG waterproof and are INSIDE THE CELLS in spinosum layer
Stratum Granulosum 8 points?
3-5 layers
cells flatter and longer
dense granules with keratohyalin
keratohyalin associated with tonofilaments
Keratohyalin + tonofibrils = keratin
worn out keratinocytes and apotosis
dead layer of keratinocytes filled with KERATIN
membrane coating granules empty glycolipid into intercellular space (barrier b/w s.g. and suface skin to water and foreign substances)
Stratum lucidum 4 points
only in thick skin
densely compacted
tonofilaments of keratin parallel to skin
keratinocytes lose nuclei
Stratum corneum 9 points
1.) surface layer
2.) scale like cells
3.) flatter as move up
4.) dead keratinocytes have no cell junctions, nuclei or organelles
5.) packed with keratin
6.) keratin consists of bundles of tonofilaments in an amorphous substance
7.)desquamation 40 -55 days
8.) thick stratum corneum in thick skin
9.) thin stratum corneum in thin skin
Melanocytes? dual what?
melanin- one brownish black pigment and one red/yellow pigment
Where Melanocytes and their projections found?
Cells in stratum basale and projections in the stratum spinosum
What is the unit of melanocytes
epidermal melanin unit: melanocyte and 4 to 10 keratinocytes which pinch off pigment into granules, which pass to the kertinocytes
Diff skin color
distribution within stratum basale
white is mostly at base of spinosum
black has uniform keratinocytes with pigment in spinosum
Where do Langerhans' cells hang most of the time?
Mostly in stratum spinusum
What do Langerhans' cells do?
they trap antigens and take them to lymph nodes

contact dermatitis
What do Merkel's cells do?
are mostly in stratum basale and are mechanoreceptors close to intraepithelial nerve endings
Diff bw papillary layer and reticular layer?
Papillary below epidermis
Reticular beneath Pap and blends with Hypodermis

Papillary mostly cells and few fibers
Reticular mostly fibers (collagen bundles)

Papillary has dermatoglyphs (dermal ridges that contain Meissner's corpuscles)

Reticular layer has bundles of collagen-Langer's lines
Which is deepes of the nerve endings?
Pacinian corpuscle-deep pressure receptor in the deep dermis and hypodermis
Which most superficial nerve ending?
Krause end bulb-mechanoreceptor found in the superficial dermis
What do sebaceous glands secrete and what does it do?
Sebum, lube skin, protect from dry and antibacterial
Where sebaceous glands found? 3 steps?
Found near hair follicles, but can be in lip, unrelated to hairs

1.) get fat
2.) nuckles disappear
3.) entire cell released (holocrine)
What do glands of sebum consist of?
3-5 secretory units or alveoli
What stim sebaceous glands?
androgens
What are two types sweat glands?
eccrine-simple coiled tubular glands

apocrine- larger lumen, specialized glands; secrete more viscous product
What are two types of products of eccrine glands?
water product with solutes or mucoid glycoprotein
What push out secretory product of eccrine?
myoepithelial cells
Where apocrine glands located?
see and hear, stink, brown eye THO
eyelid, external auditory canal, armpit, circumanal region, nipple
What replaces lanugo?
Vellus
What are the parts of hair?
Shaft
-inner medulla
-surrounded by pigmented cortex
-outside is cuticle (overlapping squamous cells)

Root- hair bulb with conical projection of the dermis called a papilla
What part do inner and outer part of hair cuticle arise?
Inner from epidermis
outer from dermis (outer ct)
What is diff between eponychium and hyponychium?
eponychium cuticle of skin covering nail root

hyponychium thick epidermal layer holding distal end of nail
3 layers nail
proximal is nail root, which is buried in epidermis fold, which covers matrix