Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/38

Click to flip

38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Q: How is Haemophilus influenzae characterized?
A: Small gram negative rod
Q: What are H. influenzae’s 3 virulene factors?
A: 1. Polysaccharide capsule prevents phagocytosis-(the reason type b is most virulent), 2. IgA-protease-degrades antibody, 3. Adherence factors
Q: How many serotypes does H. influenzae have? What are they?
A: 6, polysaccharide capsule types
Q: How is H. flu transmitted?
A: droplets
Q: What is required to diagnose H. flu?
A: 1. gram stain, 2. chocolate agar culture with factors X and V, 3. CSF
Q: How do you treat URT infection from H. flu?
A: Ampicillin
Q. How do you treat Meningitis from H. flu?
A: Ceftriaxone
Q. What prophylaxis do you use for H. flu?
A: Rifampin
Q: What diseases does H. flu cause in children?
A: 1. Meningitis, 2. URT’s: Epiglottitis( type B), Otitis Media (non-type B), Sinusitis (non-type B), 3. Orbital Inflammation, 4. Bacterial Conjuctivitis (Pink Eye), 5. Pneumonia
Q: What diseases does H. flu only cause in adults?
A: 1. Pneumonia, 2. Bronchitis in Smokers
Q: How is Bordetella pertussis characterized?
A: Small encapsulated gram negative rod
Q: What are B. pertussis’s 5 virulene factors?
A: 1. polysaccharide capsule, 2. pili for attachment, 3. Pertussis toxin, 4. Tracheal cytotoxin, 5. Adenylate Cyclase Toxin
Q: What mechanism does B. pertussis use to enter the cell?
A: Attaches to ciliated epithelium via pili protein
Q: What is the mechanism of Pertussis Toxin?
A: Its an AB toxin that inhibits inhibitory G protein by ADP ribosylation which in turn stimulates cAMP formation by adenylate cyclase and thus, decreases host defenses
Q: What is the mechanism of Tracheal Cytotoxin?
A: Damages ciliated cells
Q: What is the mechanism of Adenylate Cyclase Toxin
A: ?
Q: How is B. pertussis transmitted?
A: Airbone droplets
Q: How do you diagnose B. pertussis?
A: 1. gram stain, 2. fastidious organism, 3. DFA and PCR
Q: What is the treatment for B. pertussis?
A: Erythromycin
Q: What disease does B. pertussis cause?
A: Whooping Cough! (starts with fever, cough, and runny nose and cough becomes more predominant overtime with a loud inspiratory whoop)
Q: How is Legionella pneumophila characterized?
A: faintly staining gram negative rod
Q: What are L. pneumophila’s 2 virulene factors?
A: 1. beta lactamase, 2. endotoxin that affects elderly, smokers, and alcoholics
Q: How many serotypes does L. pneumophila have?
A: 24
Q: How is L. pneumophila transmitted ?
A: Respiratory droplets from environmental water sources. (community acquired or nosocomial)
Q: How is L. pneumophila diagnosed?
A: 1. Dieterle silver stain, 2. Culture-cysteine required, 3. Serology, 4. Fluorescent tests
Q: What is the treatment for infection with L. pneumophila?
A: Macrolide antibiotics (+/- Rifampin) Note: resistant to beta lactam antibiotics!
Q: How is L. pneumophila transmitted?
A: Airbone droplets
Q: What patients are at risk for infection with L. pneumophila?
A: 1. smokers, 2. immunosuppressed patients, esp. organ transplant patients, 3. patients on ventilators
Q: What diseases does Legionella cause?
A: 1. Atypical pneumonia!, 2. Nosocomial pneumonia, 3. Opportunistic pneumonia Note: seen mostly in the elderly
Q: How is Klebsiella pneumoniae characterized?
A: Aerobic, Gram negative rod with very thick capsule
Q: What is K. pneumoniae’s virulence factor?
A: Its very thick polysaccharide capsule prevents phagocytosis
Q: How many serotypes does K. pneumoniae have? What types are they?
A: More than 70; polysaccharide capsule types (K antigens)
Q: What is K. pneumoniae’s mechanism ?
A: Septic shock caused by endotoxins in call wall.
Q: What is K. pneumoniae’s epidemiology?
A: 1. typically seen in alcoholics, 2. seen in patients with diabetes, COPD, 3. common nosocomial pathogesn (14% of bacteremias especially in patients with urinary catheters)
Q: How is K. pneumoniae transmitted?
A: 1. aspiration of respiratory droplets, 2 normal flora of colon
Q: How is K. pneumoniae diagnosed?
A: 1. Gram stain showing gram – rod with large capsule, 2. Current Jelly sputum
Q: What is the treatment for patients with K. pneumoniae?
A: Cephalosporints Note: high levels of antibiotic resistance cause concern
Q: What diseases does Klebsiella cause?
A: 1. Pneumonia, 2. Nosocmial Pneumonia, 3. Urinary Tract Infections, 4. Septic Shock Note: seen mostly in the elderly