Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

54 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is leukorrhea?
vaginal discharge
What can observation of vaginal discharge characteristics help determine?
• organism causing infection
• duration of infection
What are examples of gynecological infections of the upper tract?
• cervicitis
• endometritis
• pelvic inflammatory disease
• salpingitis
• tubo-ovarian abscess
What is the most common symptom associated with infections of the vagina?
What is the definition of vulvovaginitis?
inflammation involving the vulva and vagina
What are some presenting symptoms of vulvovaginitis?
• burning
• dyspareunia
• foul odor
• itching
• vaginal discharge
What are the 4 conditions of vulvovaginitis?
• Atrophic vaginalis
• Bacterial Vaginosis
• Candida (yeast) vulvovaginitis
• Trichomonas vulvovaginitis
What is the pH of a normal vagina?
What is the most common bacterial in the normal flora of the vagina?
lactobacillus acidophillus
List examples of bacteria present in the vaginal normal flora
• Lactobacilli
• Candida spp.
• Clostridium spp.
• Enterococcus
• Escherichia coli
• Gardnerella vaginalis
• Group B streptococci
• Peptococci
• Stahpylococcus Aureus
What organisms cause Bacterial Vaginosis?
• Garderlla vaginalis
• Other anaerobes (Bacteroides, Peptococcus, Mobiluncus)
Generally, what are signs and symptoms of Bacterial Vaginosis?
• "musty" or "fishy" odor
• increased thin gray-white to yellow discharge
• mild vulvar irritation
What is a positive "whiff test"?
• mixing of vaginal secretion with 10% KOH
• causes liberation of amines that may be detected by their fishy odor
What are clue cells?
• epithelial cells with numerous coccoid bacteria attached to their surface
• seen under saline wet mount for Bacterial Vaginosis
A diagnosis of BV is defined as 3 out of 4 criteria. What are the 4 criteria?
• homogenous discharge
• pH greater than 4.5
• positive "whiff test"
• presence of clue cell
What are the different intravaginal creams that can be used to treat BV?
• Metronidazole 0.75% vaginal gel BID x 5 days
• Clindamycin 2% vaginal cream QD x 7 days
What are different oral medications that can be used to treat BV?
• Metronidazole 500 mg PO BID x 7 days
• Metronidazole 2 g PO (one time dose)
• Clindamycin 300 mg PO x 7 days
What are the only areas of the body that Trichomonas lives?
• male and female urethra
• Skene's ducts
• vagina
What are signs and symptoms of Trichomonas vaginalis?
• burning
• diffuse vaginal erythema
• dysuria
• dyspareunia
• malodorus frothy yellow-green discharge
• pruritus
• strawberry cervix
What is a strawberry cervix?
red petechiael or macular lesions on the cervix
What is gold standard for diagnosing Trichomonas Vaginalis?
What is the treatment for Trichomonas Vaginalis?
• Metronidazole (either 2g single dose OR 500 mg PO BID x 7 days)

* sexual partner should be treated even if asymptomatic
What substance should people taking Metronidazole avoid?
• avoid alcohol
• can lead to disulfiram-like reaction
What are predisposing factors for Vulvovaginal Candidiasis?
• broad spectrum antibiotics
• corticosteroids
• chronic debilitation
• diabetes
• heat
• immunosuppresion
• moisture
• occlusive clothing
• pregnancy
• vaginal douching
What are treatment options for Vulvovaginal Candidiasis?
• Clotrimazole 500 mg single dose
• Fluconazole 150 mg single dose (most widely used)
• Miconazole 200 mg vaginal supp x 3 days
• Terconazole 0.8% cream 5 g supp x 3 days
What are signs and symptoms of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis?
• burning sensation w/ urination
• pruritus
• vulvovaginal erythema (w/ fissures)
• white curd-like, cheesy vaginal discharge
What are characteristics of the vagina in atrophic vaginitis?
• thinning of the vaginal mucosa
• epithelium alteration
• pH 5-7 (predisposed to trauma & infections)
What are signs and symptoms of atrophic vaginits?
• burning
• dyspareunia
• itching
• spotting
• vaginal dryness
• vaginal irritation
How is atrophic vaginitis diagnosed?
• on saline wet mount
• increase polymorphonuclear cells and parabasal epithelial cell
What is the treatment for atrophic vaginitis?
• Estradiol vaginal ring q 90 days
• Vagifem 1 tab intravaginal QD x 2 weeks
What is the most commonly sexually transmitted organism in the US?
Chlamydia trachomatis
True/False: Herpes simplex virus is a DNA virus
The correct answer is: True
Describe the clinical course of genital herpes
• prodromal phase: mild paresthesia and burning beginning 2-5 days after infection in symptomatic pts
• progresses to painful vesicular and ulcerated lesion (3-7 days after exposure)
• usually resolves in 1 week
What are other signs & symptoms of genital herpes?
• aseptic menigitis
• dysuria (caused by vulvar lesions)
• inguinal adenopathy
• low-grade fever
• malaise
• non-purulent cervicitis
What are treatment options for Genital Herpes?
• Acyclovir
• Valacyclovir
• Famciclovir

* same medications for recurrent infection
What are condylomata acuminata?
• soft, fleshy frowths on the vulva, vagina, cervix, urethral meatus, perineum, and anus
• may form large cauliflower-like masses
• seen in HPV
What are treatment options for HPV?
• Imiquimod
• Podofilox
• cryotherapy, cautery, or laser treatment
• Hysterectomy (for high grade changes)
What are newborns predisposed to if born by vaginal delivery to a mother with HPV?
laryngeal papilomatosis
What is treatment for gonorrhea in non-pregnant patients?
• Ceftriaxone
• Ciprofloxacin
• Ofloxacin


• Doxycycline
• Azithromycin
What is the treatment for gonorrhea in pregnant patients?
• Ceftriaxone
• Spectinomycin

• Erythromycin
• Amoxacillin
What are treatment options of Chlamydia infections in non-pregnant women?
• Doxycycline
• Macrolides (alternative if PCN allergic)
What are treatment options for Chlamydial infections for pregnant women?
• Erythromycin
• Amoxicillin
What is the definition of PID?
• inflammation of the upper genital tract
• includes the fallopian tubes, uterus, ovaries, and broad ligament
When can PID become life threatening?
if complicated by ruptured tubo-ovarian abscess
What are physical signs of PID?
• abdominal tenderness, guarding, rebound
• cervical motion tenderness
• purulent vaginal discharge
• uterine & adnexal tendeness
How many major and minor criteria must be present for a diagnosis of PID?
3 major and one minor criteria
What are the major criteria for diagnosing PID?
• abdominal tenderness
• adnexal tenderness
• cervical motion tenderness
What are the minor criteria for diagnosing PID?
• fever (> 38 °C or 100.4 °F)
• leukocytosis
• purulent fluid from peritoneal cavity
• pelvic abscess on exam or sonogram
When should a laparoscopy or laparotomy be performed in patients with PID?
• laparoscopy:
- with uncertain diagnosis
- to lyse adhesions
- to drain abscess

• laparotomy: in cases of ruptured TOA
What are complications of PID?
• ectopic pregnancy
• Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome
• infertility
What are symptoms of primary infection of syphilis?
hard, painless chancre with spontaneous resolution in 3-6 weeks
What are symptoms of secondary syphilis?
• systemic disease lasting 2-6 weeks
• fever
• headache
• lymphadenopathy
• skin rash
• vulva condylomata lata
What are symptoms of tertiary syphilis?
• aortic aneurysm
• generalized paresis
• gummata (destructive necrotic granulomatous lesions) of soft tissues and bones
• progressive damage to the CNS and musculoskeletal system
• tabes doraslis
What is a Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction?
a flu-like reaction secondary to pyrogen release from treponemes