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98 Cards in this Set

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Gynecology
medical specialty that studies the A&P of the female genital system and uses diagnostic tests, medical and surgical procedures, and drugs to treat female genital diseases.
Obstetrics
medical specialty that studies the A&P of the female reproductive system and uses diagnostic tests, medical & surgical procedures, and drugs to monitor normal pregnancy and childbirth and treat diseases.
Anovulation
failure of the ovaries to release a mature ovum at the time of ovulation, although the cycle is normal.
ovarian cancer
cancerous tumor on an ovary. The malignancy often does not cause symptoms until it is quite large and has already metastasized.
polycystic ovary syndrome
ovaries contain multiple cysts.
Saplingitis
inflammation or infection of the uterine tube that narrows or blocks the lumen of the tube. It is due to endometriosis or pelvic inflammatory disease.
endometrial cancer
cancerous tumor of the endometrium of the uterus, earliest sign is abnormal bleeding.
endometriosis
endometrial tissue in abnormal places. The endometrium sloughs off during menstruation but is forced upward through the uterine tubes and out into the pelvic cavity because the uterus is in an abnormal, retroflexed position. The tissue implants itself of the outside of the ovaries and uterus and on the walls of the abdominopelvic cavity.
leiomyoma
benign smooth muscle tumor of the myometrium which can be small or as large as a soccer ball. There is pelvic pain, excessive uterine bleeding, and painful sexual intercourse.
leiomyosarcoma
cancerous smooth muscle tumor of the myometrium.
myometritis
inflammation or infection of the myometrium.
pyometritis
infection of the myometrium that creates pus in the intrauterine cavity.
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
infection of the cervix that ascends to the uterus, uterine tubes, and ovaries; often caused by STD.
retroflexion of the uterus/retroversion is another name
abnormal position In which the entire uterus is bent backward while the cervix is in a normal position. It is associated with the development of endometriosis.
uterine fibroids
benign fibrous tissue tumor of the myometrium that can be small or large, and there are usually several.
Fibroid
resembling fiber
uterine prolapse
descent of the uterus from it’s normal position. This is caused by stretching of ligaments that support the uterus and weakness in the muscles of the floor of the pelvic cavity.
Amenorrhea
absence of monthly menstrual periods. It is caused by a hormone imbalance, thyroid disease, or a tumor of the uterus or ovary.
Dysmenorrheal
painful menstruation.
Menopause
normal cessation of menstrual periods, occurring around middle age.
Perimenopausal
time around menopause when menstrual periods first become irregular and menstrual flow is lighter.
Climacteric
another name for menopause
Menorrhagia
a period with excessively heavy flow or a menstrual period that lasts longer than 7 days. It is caused by a hormone imbalance, uterine fibroids, or endometriosis.
Oligomenorrhea
period with very light flow or infrequent menstrual cycles in a woman who previously had normal periods.
premenstrual syndrome –PMS
breast tenderness, fluid retention, bloating, and mild mood changes a few days before the onset of a period
cervical cancer
cancerous tumor of the cervix.
Carcinoma
if the cancer is still localized. There is severe dysplasia of the cells as seen on a pap smear, later ulceration and bleeding
cervical dysplasia
abnormal growth of squamous cells in the surface layer of the cervix, seen on an abnormal pap.
Dysplasia
condition of a painful, abnormal growth
incompetent cervix
spontaneous, premature dilation of the cervix during the second trimester of pregnancy; can result in spontaneous abortion.
Bacterial vaginosis
infection of the vagina due to Gardnerella vaginalis. There’s a white or grayish discharge that has a fishy odor. This Is not a STD.
Candidasis
yeast infection of the vagina due to Candida albicans. Vaginal itching and leucorrhea which is a cheesy, white discharge; can occur after taking antibiotic drug for bacterial infection; the drug kills the disease-causing bacteria but also kills the normal bacteria flora of the vagina. Then yeast, which isn’t affected by the antibiotic drug, multiplies and causes an infection.
Cystocele
herniation of the bladder into the vagina because of a weakness in the vaginal wall. Caused by childbirth or age
Dyspareunia
painful or difficult sexual intercourse
Rectocele
herniation of the rectum into the vagina because of a weakness in the vaginal wall; caused by childbirth or age
Breast Cancer
cancerous tumor, usually an adenocarcinoma of the lactiferous lobules of the breast. Can be swelling in the area, enlarged lymph nodes, and nipple discharge.
adenocarcinoma
cancerous tumor or mass of a gland
Failure of Lactation
lack of production of milk in the breasts following pregnancy.
fibrocystic disease
benign condition in which numerous fibrous and fluid-filled cysts form in one or both breasts. The size of the cysts can change in response to hormone levels. They are painful and tender.
galactorrrhea
discharge of milk from the breasts when the patient is not pregnant or breastfeeding.
abnormal presentation
birth position in which the presenting part of the fetus is not the head.
Breech
presenting part is the buttocks, buttocks and feet, or just the feet.
Malpresentation
if the fetus is in a transverse lie; fetal vertebral column is perpendicular to the mother’s vertebral column; the shoulder or arm is the presenting part.
abruption placentae
complete or partial separation of the placenta from the uterine wall before the third stage of labor which results in uterine hemorrhage that threatens the life of the mother as well as disruption of blood flow and oxygen through the umbilical cord, which threatens the life of the fetus.
cephalopelvic disproportion
size of the fetal head exceeds the size of the opening in the mothers pelvic bones.
dystocia
any type of difficult or abnormal labor and delivery.
ectopic pregnancy
implantation of a fertilized ovum somewhere other than in the uterus. It can occur in the cervix, ovary, or abdomen, by most commonly occurs in the uterine tube.
tubal
pregnancy that occurs when a fertilized ovum implants in the uterine tube
Hemosalpinx
bleeding of the uterine tube; common with tubal pregnancies
gestational diabetes mellitus
temporary disorder of glucose metabolism that occurs only during pregnancy.
Hydatidiform
abnormal union of an ovum and spermatozoon. It produces hundreds of small, fluid-filled sacs but no embryo. The chorion produces HCG so the patient has early signs of pregnancy, however the mole grows more rapidly than a normal pregnancy, and the uterus is much larger than expected for the gestational age
Mastitis
inflammation or infection of the breast
morning sickness
nausea & vomiting during the first trimester of pregnancy
Hyperemisis gravidarum
excessive vomiting that causes weakness, dehydration, and fluid and electrolyte imbalance.
Oligohydramnios
decreased volume of amniotic fluid. The fetus swallows amniotic fluid but does not excrete a similar volume in its urine because of a congenital abnormality of the fetal kidneys.
placenta previa
incorrect position of the placenta with its edge partially or completely covering the cervical canal.
Polyhyramnios
increased volume of amniotic fluid caused by maternal diabetes mellitus, twin gestation, abnormalities in the fetus.
postpartum hemorrhage
continual bleeding from the site where the placenta separated after delivery. The uterus is boggy and does not become firm. It is caused by hypo-secretion of oxytocin from the posterior pituitary gland in the brain.
prolapsed cord
loop of umbilical cord becomes caught between the presenting part of the fetus and the birth canal. This occurs if the membranes rupture before the fetal head is fully engaged in the bother’s pelvis.
spontaneous abortion
loss of a pregnancy. An early spontaneous abortion usually occurs because of a genetic abnormality or poor implantation of the embryo with the endometrium.
Biopsy
procedure to remove a small piece of tissue for examination to look for abnormal or cancerous cells
Sterotactic
a biopsy that uses three different angles of mammography to precisely locate the mass.
Incisional
to cut the area over the mass to remove a large part, but not all, of the mass.
Excisional
entire mass is remove along with the surrounding margin of normal tissues
Cytology
the study of a cell
Ectocervical
pertaining to outside the cervix
Endocervical
pertaining to within the cervix
Amniocentesis
test of the amniotic fluid
Hysterosalpingography
contrast dye is injected through the cervix into the uterus. It coats and outlines the uterus and uterine tubes and shows narrowing, scarring and blockage.
Hysterosalpingogram
xray image of a hysterosalpingography
Mammography
x-rays to create an image of the breast. The breast is compressed and slightly flattened. This is used to detect areas that a breast examination can’t feel.
Ultrasonography
procedure that uses ultra high-frequency sound waves emitted by a transducer or probe to produce an image on a computer screen
Sonogram
the ultrasound image is known as a sonogram
Transvaginal
pertaining to through; inside the vagina
Colposcopy
procedure that uses a magnifying lighted scope to visually examine the vagina and cervix.
Cryosurgery
procedure to destroy small areas of abnormal tissue on the cervix.
Cryoprobe
cold, rod like instrument used to touch the areas to freeze and destroy the abnormal tissues.
Nuliigravida
a woman who has never been pregnant and is not pregnant now.
Primigravida
a woman who is pregnant for the first time.
Multigravida
a woman who has been pregnant more than once
Multiparous
a woman that has had many children is called this
Hysterectomy
procedure to remove the uterus
Laparoscopy
procedure to visualize the abdominopelvic cavity, uterus, uterine tubes, and ovaries for diagnosis, biopsy, or surgery.
Oophorectomy
procedure to remove an ovary because of large ovarian cysts or ovarian cancer.
Saplingectomy
procedure to remove the uterine tube because of ovarian cancer or an ectopic pregnancy in the tube.
Colporrhaphy
procedure to suture a weakness in the vaginal wall. This is done to correct a Cystocele or a rectocele.
Culdoscopy
procedure in which an endoscope is inserted into the vagina and then pushed through the posterior wall of the vagina and into the pelvic cavity.
Lumpectomy
procedure to excise a small malignant tumor of the breast. Adjacent normal breast tissue and the axillary lymph nodes are also removed in case any cancerous cells have already spread to them.
Mammaplasty
procedure to change the size, shape, or position of the breast.
Mastectomy
surgical resection of all or part of the breast to excise a malignant tumor.
Radical Mastectomy
pectoralis major and minor muscles of the chest wall are also removed
• Dissection
to cut apart
Prophylactic
type of mastectomy that can be performed to prevent breast cancer from occurring in women who have a strong family history of breast cancer.
Cerclage
procedure to place a purse-string suture around the cervix to prevent it from dilating prematurely.
Cesarean section
procedure to deliver a fetus through an incision in the abdominal wall and uterus.
Episiotomy
surgical incision in the posterior edge of the vagina to prevent a spontaneous tear during delivery of the baby’s head.
Tocolytic
drug to treat pre-mature contractions by relaxing the smooth muscle of the uterine wall.
Estrogen
drug to treat the symptoms and consequences of menopause caused by decreased levels of estradiol.