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17 Cards in this Set

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Normal values for Bilirubin are?
normal values total : 0.1-1.2 mg/dl direct bilirubin : 0.1-0.4 mg/dl indirect bilirubin : 0.2-0.7 mg/dl
What is Bilirubin?
Bilirubin Is the breakdown product of heme, a molecule, that can bind oxygen, presents in hemoglobin and cytochrome
Bilirubin can be increased in case of ?
1) Increased formation of bilirubin -
destruction of red blood cells (hemolysis)
2) Decreased liver metabolism of bilirubin
3) Biliary obstruction
Biliary obstruction is evidensed by?
JAUNDICE : when levels are greater than 3 mg/dl
dark urine : when direct bilirubin is increased (it's hydrosoluble)
pale stools : when there is biliary obstruction
The prothrombin (blood clotting) time is elevated in:
cirrhosis
severe acute hepatitis
vitamin K deficiency
anti-coagulant therapy (warfarin)
Why are increased levels of direct bilirubin detected during LIVER DISEASE?
Bilirubin (normal values 0.1-1.2 mg/dl)
Reflect the liver's ability to take up, conjugate and secrete bilirubin into the bile. During liver disease secretion is impaired, so there is increased levels of direct bilirubin
In advanced liver diseases there is a build-up of ammonia, due to liver disfunction. WHY?
Ammonia (normal value <50 mg/dl)
Transaminases remove amino group from amino acids, producing ammonia. This toxic by-product of protein metabolism is transformed in urea (non toxic) by hepatocytes
When are GGT values elevated?
GGT is also elevated in liver disease, particularly with obstruction of bile ducts. Unlike the alkaline phosphatase it is not elevated with bone growth or damage.
When are AST/SGOT, ALT/SGPT values elevated?
AST/SGOT , ALT/ SGPT are also liver and muscle enzymes. They may be elevated from liver problems, hepatitis, excess alcohol ingestion, muscle injury and recent heart attack.
An elevated number of white blood cells(WBC) is?
An elevated number of white blood cells is called leukocytosis. This can result from bacterial infections, inflammation, leukemia, trauma, or stress
A decreased WBC count is ?
A decreased WBC count is called leukopenia. It can result from many different situations, such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or diseases of the immune system.
A low level of blood sodium means ?
Hyponatremia, sodium loss, too much water intake or retention, or to fluid accumulation in the body (edema). ,confusion, coma, sodium levels are often checked even if you don’t have any symptoms
sodium loss (Addison’s disease) is due to ?
diarrhea, excessive sweating, diuretic administration, or kidney disease), drinking too much water, heart failure, cirrhosis, kidney diseases that cause protein loss
high blood sodium level means you have hypernatremia, WHAT ARE THE Symptoms?
Symptoms include dry mucous membranes, thirst, agitation, restlessness, acting irrationally, and coma or convulsions if levels rise extremely high
How much Potassium is extracellular and why is are
abnormal values significant?
2%, If potassium levels go too low or too high, your health may be in considerable danger: you are at risk for developing shock, respiratory failure, or heart rhythm disturbances
What is hyperchloremia?
Increased levels of chloride (called hyperchloremia) usually indicate dehydration, but can also occur with any other problem that causes high blood sodium
What is hypochloremia?
Decreased levels of chloride occurs with any disorder that causes low blood sodium. Hypochloremia also occurs with prolonged vomiting or gastric suction, chronic diarrhea, emphysema, or other chronic lung disease (causing respiratory acidosis), and with loss of acid from the body (called metabolic alkalosis).