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42 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
carbohydrates
energy-rich organic compound made of the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
compound
when two or more elements combine chemically
Golgi body
receive proteins and other newly formed materials from the endoplasmic reticulum, package them, and distribute them to other parts of the cell
lysosome
small round structures that contain chemicals that break down large food particles into smaller ones
ribosomes
small grain like bodies; produce proteins
nucleic acids
very large organic molecules made of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and phosphorus
DNA
genetic material that carries information about an organism that is passed from parent to offspring
selectively permeable
a property of cell membranes that allows some substances to pass through while others cannot
diffusion
process by which molecules tend to move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
osmosis
the diffusion of water molecules through a selectively permeable membrane
passive transport
the movement of materials through a cell membrane without using energy
active transport
is the movement of materials through a cell membrane using energy
RNA
plays an important role in the production of proteins
element
any substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances
atom
smallest unit of an element
atom
smallest unit of an element
molecule
smallest units of most compounds
organic compounds
most compounds that contain carbon
inorganic compound
compounds that don't contain the element carbon
protein
large organic molecules made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and in some cases, sulfur
amino acids
protein molecules made up of smaller molecules
enzyme
type of protein that speeds up a chemical reaction in a living thing
amino acids
protein molecules made up of smaller molecules
lipids
fat, oil, and waxes
chloroplasts
capture energy from sunlight and use it to produce food for the cell
vacuole
storage area of the cell
nucleus
control center that directs all of the cell's activities
chromatin
contain the genetic material, the instructions that directs the functions of a cell
cytoplasm
the region between the cell membrane and the nucleus; clear, thick, gel like fluid
mitochondria
produce most of the energy the cell needs to carry out its functions
endoplasmic reticulum
carry proteins and other materials from one part of the cell to another
cell
basic units of structure and function in living things
microscope
instrument that makes small objects look larger
compound microscope
light microscope that has more than one lens
cell theory
widely accepted explanation of the relationship between cells and living things
magnification
ability to make things look larger than they really are
magnification
ability to make things look larger than they really are
convex lens
a lens with a curved shape
resolution
the ability to clearly distinguish the individual parts of an object
organelle
tiny cell structures that carry out specific functions within the cell
cell wall
rigid layer of nonliving material that surrounds the cells of plants and some other organisms
cell membrane
controls what substances come into and out of a cell