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42 Cards in this Set

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Equip children with skills and attitudes they need for a happy, responsible, productive life.
Long term goals
Be kind - must not infringe on the rights of others
Be safe - must not present clear risk of harm to self and others
Be neat - must not irresonably damage environment, animals, objects or materials.
Short-term goals
Emphasizes what to do and sets an example to follow.
An ongoing process of interaction between adults and children.
Seen as a positive; helps children develop responsibility and self-control.
Fosters a child's ability to think, which bolsters self-esteem.
Based on a caring, nurturing approach which protects a child's feelings.
Guidance
Often emphasizes what not to do
Often spontaneous, on the spot reaction
Often negative, may undermine trust, autonomy, and initiative.
Has potential to diminish self-esteem.
Frequently impulsive, often causes feelings of shame and humiliation.
Punishment
o Basic right of respect as a human being
o Right to safety
o Right to avoid unnecessary discomfort
o Right to their possessions
o Right to fairness
Rights of Children
Guidance that bolsters self-esteem, nurtures cooperativeness, and models socially acceptable coping skills
Positive assertive guidance
Who should be responsible for the well-being and guidance of children?
We are all responsible for the well-being and guidance of children.
Tell the difference between reasonable rules and being overly protective.
Reasonable rules are ones that allow a child to explore without allowing them to be in danger
A strong affectional tie between an infant and his or her primary caregivers.
Attachment Theory
 Warmth and responsiveness from caregivers
 Predictable environment
 Consistent care giving
Guidance Needs
 Using caregiver as security base will explore strange environment.
 May protest when separation occurs, but easily comforted when caregiver returns
Securely attached infants
 Less able to use caregiver as a secure base.
 May cling to parent and unwilling to explore the environment.
 Not readily comforted when separation from caregiver occurs.
Insecurely attached infants
Emphasis on the role of environment in shaping behavior
Behavioral Theory
 Children model their behavior after someone they perceive as similar to themselves and being nurturant and helpful. (observational learning)
 Early childhood experiences create a child's self-image, which is further reinforced by positive or negative interactions with others.
Modeling
setting in which the child spends a significant amount of time, such as home and school
Microsystem
The relationships of the above settings, such as parents interactions with teachers
Mesosystem
Societal structures, such as church, neighborhood
Exosystem
Larger contexts such as social laws and values, federal laws.
Macrosystem
Gradual separation from one’s parents and taking responsibility for oneself.
Autonomy and Individuation
Adolescent assumption that his/her experiences are unique
Personal fable
Heightened self-consciousness that leads to the belief that his/her behavior is the focus of everyone’s attention.
Imaginary audience
In spite of their cognitive development, adolescents do not always think like adults.
Guidance implications
Teaching a new response triggered by a new stimulus by paring it repeatedly with a stimulus for which there is a physiological reflex.
Classic conditioning
The process of becoming accustomed to frequent repetition of pattern of behavior.
Habituation
A person’s inability to take action to make his or her life better, arising out of a sense of not being in control.
Learned helplessness
The distress children show when they cry in separation from a parent or primary caregiver.
Separation anxiety
The child must be able to distinguish unfamiliar faces from familiar ones. They may be curious or terrified
Stranger anxiety
Stress traps for parents and educators
o Perfectionism
o The need to always be in control
o People pleasing
o Self-doubt
Importance of friendships for preschoolers
Between 3 and 5 children need to learn how to be a friend and how to have friends, a very important kind of learning for the child’s long-term social and emotional adjustment in life.
One’s own perception of oneself in terms of personal worth, life and school successes, and perceived social status
Self-concept
Seeing oneself as a worthwile individual
Self-esteem
 Evidence of chronic and compulsive pattern of inappropriate or self-destructive behavior
 Often causes negative reactions, the opposite of the outcome desired by the child.
 When coping strategies do not work, child experiences stress and unhappiness.
Dysfunctional Behaviors
Appropriate actions that serve some productive or positive function in a child’s life.
 Functional behaviors help the child get his or her needs met.
Functional behaviors
 Focuses on the effect the child’s behavior has on the adult.
 Child’s actions are evaluated according to the impact on things the adult cares about, as well as the adult’s emotional state and mood.
Adult-centered behavior
Focuses on the ability level, motivates and long-term well-being of the child in evaluating behavior.
Child-centered behavior
Four goals of misbehavior
Attention, power,inadequacy, revenge
 Asking children to look at how their behavior affects others.
 Moves them from an egocentric to sociocentric phase of development.
Inductive guidance
Distracting a child with a different object when they want something they can not have
Distraction
Honors the child’s intent but changes the expression or form of the activity
Redirection
A direct result of the child’s own actions and a natural outcome of the behavior
Natural consequences
• Similar to natural consequences, but need adult intervention
• Should be the logical outcome of the child’s behavior
• Must be immediate, clean, and consistent.
Logical consequences
Behavior that benefits others, w/o any expected reward for the self
Prosocial behavior