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52 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what did Jared Diamond write?
- "Guns, Germs, Steel"
why did native americans have no disease according to Diamond?
they did not domesticate animals, where much of disease is derived from
intelligence does not correlate with...
... having more stuff
intelligence correlates with...(3)
1. having different types of knowledge
2. depends on past development
3. idea of resources makes a difference
why did Diamond write "Guns,Germs,Steel"?
-to bring forth why some civilizations have progressed and others have not
what did Diamond also write this book for?
- different societies have knowledge according to their way of life
why did Diamond focus on the last 10,000 years? (3)
1. end of ice age
2. beginning of recent era
3. up until 10,000-13,000 years ago many people where doing the same things
what was one of the biggest factors that changed civilization?
- farming
what research methods did Diamond use to locate most of his information? (6)
1. fossils
2. skeletal remains
3. carbon dating
4. molecular studies
5. cave drawings
6. looks at garbage
what keys factors does Diamond identify as key to the "Great Leap Forward" coming about?
- finds artifacts like jewelry, fish hooks, etc

- language develops probably from 'brain development' or 'development of voicebox'
which side does Diamond take in the megafauna overkill vs. climate debate for species decline?
- he disagrees with climate change
if it is not climate change, then what does Diamond say about why species declined?
- hunted by people
- killing off species (group hunting due to language)
what was the personality of animals that did not live around humans?
- very relaxed; not afraid
what were two(2) main places that had large populations of animals wiped out?
- Madagascar and Australia
what are Pre-Clovis sites?
- settlement sites with archeological evidence of civilization
why are there debates over the authenticity of Pre-Clovis sites?
- different ones in Americas
about how many pre-clovis sites are there?
- about 2
what is sketchy about the 2 existing pre-clovis sites?
- according to past climate (ice age), the artifacts don't match up
this is an example of Chomsky's...
..."paired example"
MORIORI AND MAORI DISPUTE accurred where abouts in the world?
- New Zealand, Australian region
which civilization existed in the Chatham Islands?
- Moriori
which civilization lived in New Zealand?
- Maori
which civilization had cold harsh climate?
- Moriori, Chatham Islands
what was the government of the Moriori?
-Concensus (small population)
what was the gov't of the Maori?
- Hierarchy (larger population)
which other advantage did the Maori in New Zealand have over the Moriori?
- marine resources

*the Moriori did not have the resources to make nets and hooks
what geological types of material could be found in New Zealand over the Moriori in Chathams?
- various minerals, iron, other such resources

*Chathams had virtually no resources to offer
Terrain Fragmentation was also a problem in both places but more so in the Chatham islands. what were the problems concerning terrain fragmentation in both places.
-New Zealand... mountains
-Chatham Islands... islands are hard to get resources from and transport them

*harder to communicate in both situations
what other problem did the Chatham Islands face?
- isolation
Another problem facing the Moriori was the ..., which limited the population growth
... area

-what are some of the easiest to domesticate? (3)
- peas, barley, wheat
what makes peas, barley, wheat easy to domesticate?
- high yields
- grow fast
- already edible (not much manufacturing)

*peas we eat are mutant
why aren't nuts and fruits as readily apparent?
- bc do not grow on a schedule (apples, pears, plums)
what other things made fruits and nuts less readily apparent?
- climate restrictions
- Grafting
what are the original weeds we eat?
- radishes
- turnips
- beats
- lettuce
- rye
what took a longer time to discover?
strawberries and raspberries
why did it take longer to discover and actually harvest strawberries and raspberries?
- bc did NOT have netting & protection against animals

why didnt they have agriculture in the great plains?
- bc no domesticated animals (no useful animals)

- do not have orignial plants (no wheat, barley, etc.)
how many wild plant species are there, and how many are edible to humans? how many can be domesticated?
- 20,000 wild plant species

- only a few thousand are edible to humans

-few hundred can be domesticated
what are the twelve crops that are widely used (worldwide)?
- wheat, corn, rice, potato, sweet potato, soy beans, barley, sugarcane & sugar beets, bananas, sorghum, manioc

- to be happy in marriage one must...
... avoid failures in marriage
to have successful agriculture one must try to avoid...
... potential failures
whats wrong with Zebras, why can't they be domesticated?
- they have good meat
- BAD TEMPER in closed situations
how many animals can truly be domesticated? how many are major domesticates?
- 14 animals can truly be domesticated
- 5 are major domesticates (cow & ox, horse, pig, ghoat, sheep)
which location globally has the 13 of the 14 domesticated animals?
- Eurasia
which has "0" domesticated animals?
- Australia
which has "1" domesticated animal?
- S. America
North America and Africa have how many domesticated animals?
- "0"
with animals comes...
... disease
disease from animals include...
... TB, small pox, influenza, plague, messels, collora
what are the 5 reasons it is difficult to domesticate animals...
1. behavioral problems
2. breeding patterns
3. dieting problems
4. growing/ growth
5. social structure
what are the 6 ket environmental differences among the Polynesian societies...
1) island geography
2) geological type
3) marine resources
4) area
5) terrain fragmentation
6) isolation