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28 Cards in this Set

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Describe the diet of an infant age 0-6 mos.
The diet of an infant age 0-6 months should consist solely of human breast milk or a commercially prepared iron-fortified formula. Breast milk is preferable, as it is the most complete/easily digested. No other foods should be given to the baby to avoid exposure to allergens. No more than 28 to 30 oz of formula should be given q24h, to aovid iron deficiency anemia.
Describe the dietary changes that should occur at 6 months and why.
The infant should be gradually introduced to solids beginning with iron-fortified rice cereal. This should be first due to its low allergenic potential.
Describe the dietary changes that should occur between 6 and 8 months.
The infant should be gradually introduced to fruits & vegetables. Foods should be introduced one at a time and parents should wait atleast 3 days before introducing another. This will allow food allergies to be easily identified. New foods should also be single-food prepared baby foods, as the combo meals usually contain more sugar, salt, and fillers.
Why should carrots, beets, and spinach be avoided before 4 months of age?
They contain nitrates that can be converted to nitrite by young infants resulting in methemoglobinemia.
Describe the dietary changes that should occur between 8 and 10 months.
Infants should be introduced to meats after fruits & vegetables because meats are harder to digest & have a high protein load.
Can infants be fed homemade foods? What considerations should be taken & what benefits are there?
Yes. Infants can be fed mashed table food such as carrots, rice & potatoes. This is generally less expensive and allows for cultural/ethnic needs. Infants can also be fed homemade baby food. However, you should avoid adding sugar, salt & spices, as infants don't need to become accustomed to these flavors and may get too much sodium or develop gastric distress.
What sweetener should be avoided until atleast 1 year of age? Why?
Honey. Infants can't detoxify C. botulinum spores which are sometimes present in honey and can develop botulism
Should infants be given juice?
Not until 1 year of age. Even then, juice should be limited to 4-6 oz a day due to its high sugar content and low nutrition content.
When should weaning from the breast occur?
During the 2nd 6 months of infancy the infant should be weaned from breast to bottle to cup.
Describe the dietary changes that should occur at 12 months.
The infant should begin eating junior fods or chopped table foods.
Describe the sensory capabilities of a newborn.
Their hearing and touch is well developed. Their vision will not be fully developed until 6 years of age but they can differentiate between light and dark at birth. They also prefer seeing human faces.
Describe the sensory capabilities of a 2 month old.
The 2 month old is able to search and turn head to locate sounds. They can differentiate smiles.
Describe the sensory capabilities of the 6 month old.
The 6 month old already has taste preference.
Describe the sensory capabilities of a 7 month old.
They can respond to their own name.
Describe the sensory capabilities of a 1 year old.
1 year olds can follow moving objects, have visual acuity of 20/50 or better, and can vocalize 4 words. At this time, infants can also develop amblyopia, or blindess in on eye (most commonly due to untreated nystagmus.)
Describe the fine motor skills of a 1 month old child.
The hand remains predominantly closed at this time.
Describe the fine motor skills of a 3 month old child.
The 3 month old child has the desire to grasp.
Describe the fine motor skills of a 5 month old.
They have now achieved a 2-handed, voluntary graps.
Describe the fine motor skills of a 6 month old child.
They may hold the bottle themselves and grasp their feet.
Describe the fine motor skills of a 7 month old child.
They can transfer objects from hand to hand.
Describe the fine motor skills of the 10 month old child.
They now have the pincer grasp.
Describe the fine motor skills of a 12 month old child.
They can do the refined pincer grasp with thumb and finger (ie picking up a raisin...think denver screening!)
Describe the gross motor skills of a 4 month old.
Gains head control and can roll from back to side.
Describe the gross motor skills of a 5 month old.
Rolls from abdomen to back.
Describe the gross motor skills of a 6 month old.
Rolls from back to abdomen.
Describe the gross motor skills of the 8 month old.
Sits alone without support.
Describe the gross motor skills of a 9 month old baby.
Stands holding furniture.
Describe the gross motor skills of a 10-12 month old.
The baby will first begn to crawl and may initially go backwards. The baby will then creep with their abdomen off the floor. Subsequently the child will cruise (upright using furniture to stay steady). Ultimately at 12 months, the baby can walk well holding onto a grownup's hand. The child can also sit down from the upright position.