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47 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
prenatal period:
begins at conception and continues until birth
science of fetal growth and development:
after _____ days of cell division, the ______ has developed into a solid cell mass called a _______
three, zygote, morula
continued cell division of the ____ produces a _____ ball of cells called a ______
morula, hollow, blastocyst
the _______ implants in the ______ wall about 10 days after fertilization
blastocyst, uterine
the _____ forms the _____ cavity and ______ of the ______
blastocyst, amniotic, chorion, placenta
yolk sac:
where fetal blood is produced
birth defect:
any structural or functional abnormality present at birth
birth defects may be caused by genetic factors:
abnormal genes, abnormal number of chromosomes
birth defects may be caused by environmental factors:
especially harmful during the first trimester
environmental factors :
are called teratogens
postnatal period:
begins at birth and lasts until death
life, growth, and development
are continuous
obvious changes in the physical appearance:
occur between birth and maturity
neonatal period:
first four weeks
cardiovascular and respiratory changes:
occur at birth
is totally dependent on mother
must immediately become totally self-supporting
extends from end of infancy to puberty
overall rate of growth in childhood:
remains rapid but decelerates
continuing development of motor and coordination skills
loss of deciduous or baby teeth and eruption of permanent teeth
varies from 13 to 19 years old
period of rapid growth results in sexual maturity (adolescence)
appearance of secondary sex characteristics regulated by secretion of sex hormones
growth spurt typical of adolescence; begins in girls at age 10 and boys at age 12
bones' growth plates are fully closed in adults
other structures such as the sinuses acquire adult placement
is characterized by maintenance of existing body tissues
older adulthood:
every organ system of the body undergoes degenerative changes
effects of aging: skeletal system
aging causes changes in the texture, calcification, and shape of bones
skeletal system
bone spurs develop around joints
skeletal system:
bones become porous and fracture easily
integumentary system (skin)
with age, skin sags and becomes thin, dry, and wrinkled
urinary system (aging)
nephron units decrease in number by 50% between ages 30 and 75
urinary system (aging)
blood flow to kidney and ability to form urine decrease
respiratory system (aging)
calcification of costal cartilages makes it difficult for rib cage to expand and contract normally
respiratory system (aging)
wasting of respiratory muscles decreases respiratory efficiency
respiratory system (aging)
respiratory membrane thickens; movement of oxygen from alveoli to blood is slowed
cardiovascular system (aging)
degenerative heart and blood vessel disease is among the most common and serious effects of aging
cardiovascular system (aging)
hardening of arteries (arteriosclerosis) may result in rupture of blood vessels
cardiovascular system (aging)
hypertension or high blood pressure is common in older adulthood
special senses:
eye lenses become hard and cannot accommodate for near vision
special senses:
decreased transmission of sound waves caused by loss of elasticity of eardrum and fixing of the bony ear ossicles is common
special senses:
some degree of hearing impairment is universally present in the aged
high blood pressure:
can cause kidney failure