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52 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Group process
all the elements basic to the unfolding of a group from the time it begins to its termination. EX: group norms, level of cohesion, how conflict emerges
Techniques
leader interventions aimed at facilitating movement within a group
Technical eclecticism
tends to focus on differences, includes aspects from many approaches, and is a collection of techniques; not advisable - integration preferred
Theoretical integration
a conceptual or theoretical creation beyond a mere blending of techniques; synthesis of two or more theoretical approaches thought to be better than restricting practice to single theory
cognitive domain
focus is on thinking or thought processes; one of 3 domains thought to be the basis for a powerful and comprehensive approach to counseling practice
affective domain
focus is on the feelings; one of three domains that form basis for a powerful and comprehensive approach to practice
behavioral domain
focus is on action; one of three domains that form basis for a powerful and comprehensive approach to practice
theory
a general framework that helps you make sense of the many facets of group process, provides you with a map of giving direction to what you do and say in the group, and helps you think about the possible results of your interventions
therapeutic groups
purposes are to increase members' knowledge of themselves and others, to help members clarify the changes they most want to make in their lives, and to provide members with the tools they need to make these changes
task groups
focus in on the application of group dynamics principles and processes to improve practice and to foster accomplishment of identified work goals
psychoeducational groups
focus is on preventing an array of educational/informational deficits and psychological problems
counseling groups
focus is on helping participants resolve the usual, yet often difficult, problems of living
psychotherapy groups
focus is on helping members remediate psychological problems
brief group therapy
relative term that generally refers to groups that are time limited, structured, last 2-3 months, and consist of 8 to 12 weekly sessions
culture
encompasses the values, beliefs, and behaviors shared by a group of people
basic assumptions about multiculturalism
1. culture is best defined broadly rather than narrowly
2. all counseling occurs in a multicultural context
3. culture includes both objective symbols and subjective perspectives
4. cultural similarities and differences are equally important
5. a multicultural perspective is relevant to all aspects of counseling practice
6. muliticulturalism needs to be understood as a continuous theme in all fields of counseling
7. multiculturalism can be the basis for people to disagree without one person being "right" and the other being "wrong"
What is one of the most significant variables influencing the group's success or failure?
who the counselor is as a person
Personal characteristics of the effective group leader
1 courage, 2 willingness to model, 3 presence 4 goodwill/genuineness/caring, 5 belief in group process, 6 openness, 7 nodefenesiveness in coping with criticism, 8 becoming aware of own culture, 9 willingness to seek new experiences, 10 personal power, 11 stamina, 12 self-awareness, 13 sense of humor, 14 inventiveness, 15 personal dedication/commitment
Professional characteristics of an effective group counselor
1. active listening 2. reflecting 3. clarifying 4. summarizing 5. facilitating 6. empathizing 7. interpreting 8. questioning 9. linking 10. confronting 11. supporting 12. blocking 13. assessing 14. modeling 15. suggesting 16. initiating 17. evaluating 18. terminating
Multicultural competency
includes: 1) beliefs and attitudes, 2) knowledge, 3) skills and intervention strategies
informed consent
1) info on the nature, purposes, and goals of the group, 2) condidentiality and exceptions to confidentiality, 3) leader's theoretical orientation, 4) group services that can be provided, 5) the role and responsibility of group members and leaders, 6) qualifications of the leader
psychological risks
involvement in group has the potential to bring about life changes. There are also risks in terms of self disclosure, maintaining confidentiality, scapegoating, and confrontation.
main issue with confidentiality in group setting
the fact that confidentiality cannot be guaranteed is clearly communicated to group members
privileged communication
professionals cannot break confidence of clients unless: 1) clients are likely to do serious harm to themselves/others/property, 2) abuses of children or elderly is suspected, 3) they are ordered by court to provide information (Arkansas one of the exceptions), 4) they are supervisees in a supervisory relationship, 5) the clients give specific written permission
other ethical issues
values and working with diversity, technology, competence, legal liability and malpractice
liabilty & malpractice
counselors who fail to exercise due care and act in good faith are liable to a civil suit
pregroup stage
all the factors involved in the formation of a group; proposal for a group, attracting members, screening and selecting, and orientation process
initial stage
a time of orientation and exploration; members tend to present dimensions of themselves they consider to be "socially acceptable"
transition stage
task is to help members learn how to begin working on the concerns that brought them to the group; members learn to monitor thoughts, feelings, reactions, actions and to express them
working stage
characterized by productiveness; mutuality and self-exploration increase and group focuses on making behavioral changes
final stage
time to further identify what was learned and to decide how this new learning can become part of daily living; focus is on conceptualization and bringing closure to the group experience
Basis of a proposal
1) rationale, 2) objectives, 3) practical considerations, 4) procedures, 5) evaluation
screening
the goal of screening is to prevent potential harm to clients: Should this particular person be included in this particular group at this time with this group leader?
practical considerations in forming a group
1. group composition (who) 2. group size (how many) 3. frequency and duration of meetings (how often) 4. length of a group (how long) 5. place for group members (where) 6. open vs closed groups (what)
open groups
changing membership
closed groups
typically have some time limitation, and generally members are expected to remain in the group until it ends, and new members are not added
basic ground rules
establishing procedures that will facilitate and govern the group: confidentiality, attendance, being on time, parental consent, dual relationships, rights and responsibilities
member-specific measures
evaluation option used to assess changes in attitudes and behaviors of individual clients
group-specific measures
evaluation option used to assess the changes common to all members of the group
central process during the intial stage of group
orientation and exploration
early concerns in intial stage
group norms & expected behavior, silence & awkwardness, hesitant, anxiety, leader's behavior, safety
hidden agendas
an issue that is not openly acknowledged and discussed and a common form of resistance in groups
group characteristics in initial stage
hidden agendas, addressing conflict early, here and now focus, self-focus vs focus on others, trust vs mistrust
Ways to create trust in initial stage
1) modeling 2) attending and listening 3) understanding nonverbal bx 4) empathy 5) genuineness & self-disclosure 6) respect 7) caring confrontation
identifying & clarifying goals
a major task during the initial stage in which leaders assist members in formulating goals that will influence their participation; there are both individual and group goals
group norms
shared beliefs about expected behaviors aimed at making groups function effectively; can be implicit or explicitly stated
group cohesion
a sense of togetherness, or community, within a group
leader guidelines for members
good to establish and expand upon in the intial stage. example guidelines: learn to help establish trust, express persitent feelings, beware of misusing jargon, decide for yourself how much to disclose, be an active participant, expect some disruption in your life, expect to discover positive aspects about yourself, listen closely, pay attention to consistent feedback, do not categorize yourself
guidelines for assigning homework
1. provide a rationale for activity 2. provide clients with a choice of homework activities or options 3. ask clients how confident they are that they will be able to complete the assignment 4. be sure to discuss the extent of homework completion and outcomes at next session 5. assess and record client's weekly performance of homework for monitoring progress
leader issues at initial stage
division of responsibility, degree of structuring (need balance, esp. in beginning), opening and closing sessions
suggestions for opening sessions
quick go-around, brief opportunity to share what they have done since the previous session, afterthoughts/unresolved feelings about the previous session, let group know that you have been thinking during the week about how the group is progressing, introduce any new members
suggestions for closing sessions
brief checkout process with each member, leave with unanswered questions (something to "chew on"), statement concerning level of investment, sharing what they are learning from the group, other topics they would like to explore in the next session, give feeback to one another, remind participants of members who will be leaving