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64 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Kurt Lewin
father of group dyanmics
group dynamics
involves theories and studies of group discussion, leadership and decision making.
social psychology
where group dynamics falls. combination of sociology and psychology
standards of behaviors or rules that groups impose upon their members, groups common belief regarding appropriate behavior for members.
dictionary meaning of a word
subjective meaining of a word
the process of becoming aware of stimuli that impinges on the 5 senses
frame of reference
everything within your personal history that causes you to percieve the world the way you do. religion, ethnicity, etc
the uncomfortable feeling that you have to choose between opposites. body is responding
experiencing what another person expeeriences, feeling what another person feels.
confidence in another person. belife that the behavior of anohter person can be predicted
self disclosure
revealing one's self to another to develop a healthy relationship
defensive behaviors
the natural response a person exhibits when feelings threatened, frustrated, or embarrassed. may giggle, pull away
anything in the situation that tends to damage the fidelity of the message exchange
physical noise
external noise that which exits in a situation outside the participants. loud, sneezing, etc
internal noise
that which exists in a person physically or psychologically. the tape one reapeats in their heads (sick, daydreaming)
semantic noise
occurs as a result of pecularities in the use of language. (using words people aren't too familiar with)
systemic noise
occurs as a failure in the total communication system. (system fails, not person)
theories of leadership
-Trait:inborn,natural tendency
a)charismatic:looking to do good for other people
b)machivellian: just care about being famous, etc
a)autocratic:leader directed, most effective with a hevy sched and need a decision made quickly.
b)democratic:leader-group interaction, raises group morale
c)laissez faire:group directed, mature group thathas most of its resources
-functional:group management
a)task:gets the job done
b)procedural:helps group operate by its own bilaws
c)socail:cares about morale of group
-situational:variable, leadershi of group shoudl change based on needs of group
person who is either appointed to lead the group or emerges within the group
is an influential process that is directed towards group goal completion
characteristics of an effective leader
-well informed and have more experience and skill with the task
- provide direction and structure to the group
-is a skillful communicator
-able to adopt leadership style to meet the needs of the group
-inspire a clear mutual vision and empower members through cooperative teamwork.
behaviors that an individual member displays in relation to the expectations of the group
informal role
characterized by behaviors that fulfill a function for the group
formal role
one assigned by the group and usually involves a title. a role that defines the authority hierarchy
role conflict
occurs when a person tries to play two or more roles that are contradictory
role strain
comes from not being able to fulfill a role
Discussion techniques
-brainstorming (list of ideas)
-nominal group technique (member's work silently but in eachother's presence)
-buzz groups (large group slits into smaller groups, appoints a spokesperson)
-quality circles (group from similiar area or who perform similiar tasks)
-focus groups (unstructered interaction, no decision making authority)
-teleconferencing (electronically mediated meeting)
delphi method
same process done by mail
TQM-total quality management
quality circles are often resferred to as part of a TQM approach
steps of problem solving
-formulating alternatives
-deciding and implementing
-evluating success
helping another person to consider changing his behavior.Communiaction to a person which gives that person information about how he/she affects others.
Feedback should focus on:
-description rather than evaluation or judgement
-specific rather than general and on behaviors rather than the person
-behavior which the reciever can do something about
-being solicited, rahter than imposed
-being well timed
-focus on what is said rather than why it was said
-description of behaviors which are in terms of "more or less" rahter than "either or"
four parts of "I" messages
-a description of what I have seen and heard (observation)
-share what you thought or assumed you had about the decribed behavior
-share the feelings experienced as a result of the observation and assumption
-share what you wanted to do about the feeling or what behavior you contemplated
listener puts into their own words what they heard
nonverbal communication
transmission of messages through means other than words. "silent message"
modes of transmission of nonverbal commnication
-environment (room color, temp, lighting, furniture)
-interpersonal distance
how to improve nonverbal communication
-obtain feedback on your body language by asking others to comment upon the gestures and facial expressions that you use in conversations.
-learn to relax when communicating with others
-use facial, hand, and body gestures to supplement your speech, but don't overdo it
-avoid using the same nonverbal gesture indiscriminately
-use role playing to practice various forms of nonverbal communication
body lagnuage symbols of job problems
-lack of comprehension
-fraud and deception
transfer of information through verbal and nonverbal messages
meta communication
communication within the communication (guilt messages)
idea or combination of ideas expressed to a reciever
medium through which the message is sent. use of multiple channels is sometimes confusing
a specific response to the transaction of speaking/listening which serves the purpose of clarifying, correcting or controlling behavior or communication errors
effective message sending
-phrase message so it can be comprehended
-have credibility as a sender
-ask for feedback on how message is actually recieved
message receiving skills
-communicate intention of wanting to understand the ideas and feelings of sender without evaluating it
-understanding and interpreting sender's ideas and feelings by giving feedback
specific receiving skills
-checking one's perception of sender's feelings
-negotiating for meaning
active listening
listening problems
-sensing:external noise, impairment of sensing
-attending:selective perception,poor attending habits
understanding:inability to empathize, mental sets, prejudice etc
-remembering:immediate loss of 25%to 50%. 75% to 80% loss after 24 hours
-use time more effectively
-think ahead of the speaker
-summarize what the speaker is saying
-identify speaker's evidence
-listen between the lines
-be aware that listening is effected by emotions
-try to avoid being distracted
major barrier of all communication
to judge or critically evaluate the message they are recieving. this will cause the sender to become cautious and defensive
other inhibitors of communication
-noise is any source of distortion in message-sending and receiving, semantic, physical and systemic
-sending messages that try to control others
-if sender is seen as being engaged in a stategy involving ambigous motives
effectors of inhibitors
-defensive behaviors
-ego becomes involved
-less objectivity
cooperative orientation
increases communication; includes descriptive messages, problem orientatino, spontaneity, empathy, equality
patterns of communicating among group members
-relative frequency and length of communicating acts
-some people speak to those who they are trying to impress, want support from, expect opposition from
-observe who triggers whom and in what ways
components of a group
-3 or more people
-face to face interaction
-mutual goals
-awareness of interdependence
-awareness of yours and others membership in groups
stage of a group
-entry,contacting, introduction, orientation
-honeymoon, committing
-conflict,doubting, evaluating
-disengaging, renegotiating, re entry, termination
things to observe in a group
-style of communication: active listening, level of participation
-level of comfort: physical, emotional, trust and openess
-style of leadership
-style of decision making
abraham maslow
sum total of an individual's needs are arranged in a hierarchy with physical needs and the need for security at the base
peak experiences that help achieve self actualization
johari window
helpful model for looking at what kind of information we mean when we talk about feedback.
-free area:known to both ourselves and others
-hidden area:known to us but we keep away from others
-blind area:contains what is known and observed by others
-unknown area: unconscious motivations
free decision on our part to share part of our hidden and intimate self with others
task functions
illustrate behaviors that are concerned with getting the job done,or accomplishing the task that the group has before them
maintenance functions
important to morale of group