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33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Right Margin Structures
Structures: (superior→inferior): superior vena cava, R atrium, Inferior vena cava
Left Margin Structures
Structures: aortic arch, pulmonary trunk, auricle L atrium, L ventricle
Base of heart
where great vessels leave (superior)
Apex heart
lower left portion of heart
RA features
Auricle – vestige of the primitive heart
Crista terminalis – internal ridge that seperates pectinate muscle from smooth surface
Coronary sinus – coronary vessel venous drainage site. On deep/posterior wall.
Fossa ovalis – embryological remnant from R→L blood shunt in utero
RV features
R AtrioVentricular or tricuspid valve stops backflow into RA
Papillary muscle – each flap of valve (3) has 2 muscle + 2 chordae tenidae connections
Moderator band – specialized electric conduction system in ventricles
Trabeculae carnae – muscle that creates valley/ridges
LA features
Most posterior heart structure, near great vessels, incoming 2 pairs pulmonary veins
Smooth inner surface, still see foreamen ovale (remnant of fossa ovalis)
LV features
2 chordae tendinae/papillary muscles stabalize mitral (L atrioventricular valve)
Rough inner surface, thickest chamber walls
Sulci of heart (3) – where vessels travel
Atrioventricular (coronary) – seperates atria from ventricles
Anterior interventricular – as name suggests
Posterior interventricular – as name suggests
Auscultatory Areas
(where valve best heard)
Aortic area – 2nd i.c.s. right of sternum
Pulmonic area – 2nd i.c.s. left of sternum
Tricuspid area – left of sternal body, superior to xiphisternal junction (xyphoid process)
Mitral area – underneath left breast, about mid clavicular
Right coronary a. (ant coronary sulcus)
R marginal a. (RV supply)→Posterior interventricular a. (sometimes)
Left coronary a.
→ Ant. Interventricular a. (ant. IV sulcus)
→ circumflex branch. A . (post AV (coronary) sulcus)
Papillary muscle names & locations
Anterior papillary muscle – both right and left ventricles
Posterior papillary muscle – both right and left ventricles
Septal papillary muscle – right ventricle only
Pectinate muscle location & description
(right atrium) & prominent ridges atrial myocardium on inner surface atrium & both auricles.
Trabeculae carnae location & description & function
(inner surface ventricles), papillary muscles & round/irregular muscle columns & prevent suction (smooth wall), aid contracting valves
Interventricular Septum
thick muscle separates ventricles.
Pericardial Sac layers (outer to inner)
1. Outer - fibrous pericardium
2. Inner - serous pericardium (2 parts)
2a. parietal pericardium (fused & inseperable fibrous pericardium
2b. visceral pericardium - part of epicardium (layer just outside myocardium)
Crista terminalis
slightly raised portion that separates pectinate muscle (RA) from smooth surface that is closer to vena cava incoming to RA
Moderator band
found RV. concentric band just inferior to anterior papilary muscle
RCA distributions
RA, most RV, part of LV (diaphra. surface), post. 1/3 IV spetum, 60% time SA node, 80% time AV node
LCA distributions
LA, most LV, part, RV, Ant 2/3 IN septum, AV bundle, 40% time SA node
Small cardiac v. (paired a.) (location)
Small cardiac v. (r marginal a.) (ant. Coronary sulcus)
Great Cardiac v. (paired a.) (location)
Great cardiac v. (ant intervent a.) (ant. Interventricular sulcus)
Middle Cardiac v. (paired a.) (location)
Middle cardiac v. (post. Cardiac v.) (post. Interventricular sulcus)
Coronary sinus (paired a.) (location)
Coronary sinus (post. Coronary sulcus)
Ant Cardiac v. (paired a.) (location)
Ant. Cardiac v. (none) (drains directly into RA)
Cardiac Plexus
parasympathetic & sympathetic innervation & afferents (sensory)
Cardiac Parasympathetic
Parasympathetic (vagus) preganglionic that synapse in ganglia in plexus or on atria walls.
Cardiac Sympathetics
Sympathetics postganglionic from cervical/upper thoracic symp chain ganglia
Heart Equivalents to Vessel layers
Tunica intima = endocardium
Tunica media = myocardium
Tunica adventitia = epicardium/visceral pericardium
Endocardium
Endocardium – endothelium layer (basement layer), subendothelia CT (elastic/collagen/myocardium)
Myocardium
Myocardium – thickest part, attach to fibrous skeleton
Epicardium
Epicardium – CT layer(collagen, elastin) (nerves, nerve ganglia, lymphaic, vessels, adipocytes)