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628 Cards in this Set

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What is the thoracic cage composed of?
(1)sternum (2)12 ribs enwrapping the area from the vertebral column posteriorly to the sternum anteriorly
NAME
this is composed of the sternum and 12 ribs enwrapping the area from the vertebral column posteriorly to the sternum anteriorly
thoracic cage
What are the functions of the thoracic cage?
(1)respiration (2)protection of thoracic contents (3)regulation of intrathoracic and intrabdominal pressure (4)movement of the upper limb
NAME
some of its function include respiration, protection of thoracic contents, regulation of intrathoracic and intrabdominal pressure,and movement of the upper limb
thoracic cage
What are the (3)parts of the sternum?
(1)manubrium (2)body (3)xiphoid process
NAME
this has three parts: manubrium, body, and xiphoid process
sternum
How many ribs does the rib cage have?
12
What are three kinds of ribs? (3)
(1)true (2)false (3)floating
NAME
there are three of kind of these: true, false, and floating
ribs
Where are the true ribs located?
1st to 7th ribs
NAME
these ribs are the 1st to 7th ribs
true ribs
Where are the false ribs located?
8 to 10 ribs
NAME
these ribs are the 8 to 10 ribs
false ribs
Where are the floating ribs located?
11 to 12th ribs
NAME
these ribs are the 11th to 12th ribs
floating ribs
What are the true ribs?
these type of ribs connect anterior directly through the sternum through costal cartilage and posteriorl through the vertebral column through costal cartilage
NAME
these kind of ribs connect anteriorly directly through the sternum through costal cartilage and posteriorly through the vertebral column via costal cartilage
true ribs
What are the floating ribs?
are called floating ribs bc dont articulate w the sternum anteriorly but share a common cartilage that articulates the sternum
NAME
these are ribs that dont atriculate w the sternum anteriorly but share a common cartilage that articulates w the sternum
floating ribs
(1)this refers to ribs
costal
costal refers to (1)
ribs
What is the sternum?
is the breast bone
NAME
this is the breast bone
sternum
How are ribs classifed? (2)
(1)atypical (2)typical
NAME
these can be classifed as ethier aytypical or typical
ribs
NAME
this is a landmark for CPR bc can fracture it
xiphoid process
What is the singificance of xiphoid process and CPR?
is a landmark bc it can easily fracture
T or F
the ribs are not easy to fracture
false
are the ribs easy to fracture?
no
WHat is the manubrium?
is the most superior portion of the sternum
NAME
this is the most superior portion of the sternum
manubrium
Describe what the manubrium is like
the superiorly portion shows the jugluar notch on either side of which there is a articular surface for the corresponding clavicle
NAME
its superior portion shows the jugular notch on either side of which there is a articular surface for the corresponding clavicle
manubrium
What is the body?
is the largest part of the strenum
NAME
this is the largest part of the sternum
body
What is the largest part of the sternum?
body
Where does the body of the sternum arituclate?
it atriculates w the 3rd through 7th costal cartilages
NAME
this articulates w the 3rd through 7th cartilages
body of the sternum
What is the angle of Louis?
is a prominent ridge at the junction of the manubrium and body of the sternum
NAME
this is a prominent ridge at the junction of the manubrium and the body of the sternum
angle of Louis
Why is the angle of Louis important?
bc it indicates the level of articulation of the costal cartilage of the 2nd rib to the sternum
NAME
this is important bc it indicates the level of articulation of the costal cartilage of the 2nd rib to the sternum
angle of Louis
What is the xiphoid process?
is the most inferior tip of the sternum that has a bifid
NAME
this is the most inferior tip of the sternum that has a bifid
xiphoid process
What is a bifid?
refers to a cleft in two
NAME
this refers to cleft in two
bifid
Where does the xiphoid process articulate?
it articules partially w the costal cartilage of the 7th rib
NAME
this articulates partially w the costal cartilage of 7th rib
xiphoid process
What is each typical rib like? (6)
(1)has a vertebral and sternal extermity w an intervening body (2)head w two demifacets (3)neck (4)tubercle (5)angle (6)costal groove along the internal surface
NAME
these type of ribs have a vertebral and sternal extermity w an intervening body, a head w two demifacets, neck, tubercle, angle, and costal groove
a typical rib
What is each typical rib like? (6)
(1)has a vertebral and sternal extermity w an intervening body (2)head w two demifacets (3)neck (4)tubercle (5)angle (6)costal groove along the internal surface
What is each typical rib like? (6)
(1)has a vertebral and sternal extermity w an intervening body (2)head w two demifacets (3)neck (4)tubercle (5)angle (6)costal groove on the internal surface
a typical rib articules w both the body of its own verebra and w the body of the above vertebra via (1)
demifacets
a (1)rib articulaes w both the body of its own vertebra and w the body of the above veretbra via demifacets
typical
a typical rib articulates w both the (1) and (2) via demifacets
(1)body of its own vertebra (2)body of the above vertebra
the head of a typical rib's articular surface is divided into (1)by a samll ridge
demifacets
What is the tubercle?
found at the junction of the neck and body of the rib and has a facet for articulation w the tranverse process of its won veretbra
NAME
this is found at the junction of the neck and body of the rib and has a facet for articulation w the tranverse process of its own vertebra
tubercle
NAME
this type of ribs have costal groove on the internal surface
typical
How is the first rib aytpical ? (2)
it is the shortest and has the greatest curvature (2)its flattened in a tranverse plane presenting superior and inferior sides
NAME
this is one of the shortest rib and has the greatest curvature and its flattened in a tranverse plane presenting superior and inferior sides
1st rib
How is the first rib aytpical ? (2)
it is the shortest and has the greatest curvature(2)its flattened in a tranverse plane presenting superior and inferior sides
What are some distiguishing characterstics of the 1st rib? (5)
(1)head showing no division of articular facet(2)neck (3)absence of an angle (4)two shallow grooves on the superior surface for the subclavian artery and vein (5)wan intervening tubercle for the attachment of the anterior scalene muscle
What are some distiguishing characterstics of the 1st rib? (6)
(1)head showing no division of articular fect (2)neck (3)absence of an angle (4)two shallow grooves on the superior surface for the subclavian artery and vein (5)wan intervening tubercle for the attachment of the anterior scalene muscle
What are some distiguishing characterstics of the 1st rib? (6)
(1)head showing no division of articular fect (2)neck (3)absence of an angle (4)two shallow grooves on the superior surface for the subclavian artery (5)and vein (6)wan intervening tubercle for the attachment of the anterior scalene muscle
NAME
this has a head showing no division of artiucular facet, neck, absence of an angle, two shallow grooves on the superior surfce for the subclavien artery and vein and an intervening tubercle for the attachment of the anterior scalene muscle
1st rib
What is the 2nd rib like?
is a transition form btwn the 1st rib and a typical rib (2)it has a curvature similar to the first rib but it is not quite as flattened (3)the angle is slight and close to the tubercle
NAME
this rib is a transition form btwn the 1st rib and a typical rib, has a curvature similar to the first rib but it is not quite as flattened, and the angle is slight and close to the tubercle
2nd rib
How are the 11th and 12th rib alike?
they share two structural similarities (1)a single articular facet on the head (2)a lack of either a neck or tubercle
NAME (2)
these two ribs share two structural similarities : a single articualr facet on the head and a lack of either a neck or tubercle
11th (2)12th ribs
What is the 11th rib like?
(3)a shallow costal groove
NAME
this rib has a aritcular facet on the head, a lack of either a neck or tubercle, or a shallow costal groove
11th rib
What is the 12th rib like?
has no costal groove
NAME
this rib has a articular facet on the head, lack of either a neck or tubercle, and no costal groove
12th rib
What is the differ btwn the 11th and 12th rib? (2)
(1)the 11th rib has a very shallow costal groove (2)and the 12th rib has none
What are the atypical ribs? (4)
(1)1st (2)2nd (3)11th (4)12th ribs
NAME
these ribs are the 1st, 2nd, 11th, and 12th ribs
atypical ribs
What is median sternotomy?
is when they split the sternum to half to open the rib cage and perform open heart surgury
NAME
this is when doctors split the sternum in half to open the rib cage and perform open heart surgury
sternotomy
What is costachondris?
is inflammation of the cartilage of the ribs
NAME
this is the inflammation of the cartilage of the ribs
costachondris
What are the symptoms of costachondris
the same as heart attack
NAME
the symptoms of this are similar to those of a heart attack
costacondris
What are the symptoms of a heart attack?
radiating shooting pain in the thorax or central pain w pain in the left arm
NAME
symptoms of this include radiating shooting pain in the thorax or central pain in the left arm
heart attack
What is the sternocostal joint?
think about the name.....it is the joint btwn the sternum and the costal cartilage
NAME
this is a the joint btwn the sternum and the costal cartilage
sternocostal joint
Where is the sternum located?
T3/T4
NAME
this is located at T3/T4
sternum
Where is the body of the sternum located?
T5/T9
NAME
this is located btwn T5/T9
the body of the sternum
Where is the xiphoid process located?
T10
NAME
this is located at T10
xiphoid process
What is the intervertebral joint?
think about the name.....it is the joint btwn the 2 veretbrae and has interveretbral disc in btwn
NAME
this is a joint btwn 2 veretbrae and has interveretbral disc in btwn
interveretbral joint
What is the costovertebral joint?
think about the name.....it is the joint btwn the rib and costal cartilage
NAME
this joint is btwn the rib and the costal cartilage
costovertebral joint
What is the sternoclavicular joint?
think about the name.....it is the joint btwn the sternum and the clavicle and acts on the arm for abduction
NAME
this joint is btwn the sternum and the clavicle and acts on the arm for abduction
sternoclavicular joint
What is the interchondral joint?
think about the name.....it is the joint btwn actual cartilages
NAME
this is a joint btwn actual cartilages
interchondral joint
What is the manubiosternal joint?
think about the name.....it is the joint btwn the angle of Louis and manubrium
NAME
this is a joint btwn the angle of Louis and the manubrium
manubiosternal
What is a xiphisternal joint?
think about the name......it is the joint btwn the xiphoid process and the body of the sternum
NAME
this is a joint btwn the xiphoid process and the body of the sternum
xiphisternal joint
STOPED HERE FOR CARDS IN WORD
STOPED HERE FOR CARDS IN WORD
NAME
this is a joint btwn the xiphoid process and the body of the sternum
xiphisternal joint
What is one unqiue thing about the thoracic vertebrae?
(1)are equipped w synovial joints costovertebral articulations sites w demifacets for the ribs
NAME
these vertebrae are equipped w synovial joints costovertebral articulations sites w demifacets for ribs
thoracic vertebrae
What is the costotranverse joint?
is the joint btwn the tubercle of a rib and the tranverse process of its vertebrea
NAME
this joint is btwn the tubercle of a rib and the tranverse process of its vertebrae
costotranverse joint
NAME
these joints limit the movement of thoracic cage in inspiration and expiration
costotranverse joint
What does the costotranverse joint do?
it limits the movement of the thoracic cage in inspiration and expiration
What is the synchondrosis?
is where the first pair of ribs unite w the manubirum of the sternum
NAME
this is where the first pair of ribs unite the manubirum of the sternum
synchondorsis
NAME
this is most important muscle involved in respiration
diaphragm
What is the most important muscle in involved in respiration?
the diaphargm
The diaphragm is the most important muscle involved in(1)
respiration
What is respiration?
inspiration/exspiration
Do the veretbrae move during inspiration?
no
T or F
the vertebrae move during inspiration
false
Describe the movement of the bones during inspiration
(1)the ribs move superiorly and anteriorly carrying costal cartilage w it (2)rib cage vol increases
NAME
during this the ribs move superiorly and anteriorly carrying costal cartilage w it
inspiration
During inspiration, the (1)move superiorly and anteriorly carrying costal cartilage w it
ribs
DUring respiration, the ribs move (1)and (2) and (3)carrying the (3)w it
(1)superiorly (2)anteriorly (3)inferiorly (4)costal cartilage
What makes the air go in lungs?
bc a air system that is high in pressure always moves to area of low pressure
A air system of (1)pressure always goes to a (2)system of pressure
(1)high (2)low
An air system of high pressure always go to a (1)system of pressure
low
an air system of (1)pressure always goes to a low system of pressure
high
What is the pressure and vol like during inspiration?
(1)vol increases (2)air pressure goes down
NAME
during this the vol incresases of the rib cage and the air pressure goes down
inspiration
During inspiration, the vol (1)while the air pressure (2)
(1)increases (2)goes down
When inhale, the pressure changes to a (1)system so that air moves out of the lungs to a (1)system
(1)high (2)low
NAME
this is a active phenomen
inspiration
NAME
this is a passive phenomen
expsiration
Inspiration is a (1)phneomen
active
Exspiration is a (1)phneomne
passive
What is the differ btwn inspiration and expiration?
(1)inspiration-is a active phenomen (2)exspiration is a passive phenomenon
Why are exspiration and inspiration possible?
bc of the recoiling and elasticity of the lungs
NAME
this is possible bc of the recoiling and elascitiy of the lungs
expsiration and inspiration
(1)is also called respiration
ventelation
ventalition is also called (1)
respiration
you have a (1)and (2)phrenic nerve
right and left
How many phrenic nerves are there?
a right and left
How many diaphragms are there?
a right and left domes
What is the phrenic nerve?
it supplies the diaphargm
NAME
this supplies the diaphargm
phrenic nerve
THe diaphargm is has (1)and (2)inverted
automatic and somatic
give example of how the diaphargm is somaticly inverted?
when you take a deep breath
Give an example of how the diaphargm is automaticly inverted?
when you are asleep
T or F
a person can live w 1 phrenic nerve
true
What happens in a person only have 1 phrenic nerve?
then only one dome of the diapharm contracts
If you lungs are not working then the (1)
diaphargm does not contract right and the accessary muscles enlarge
What does hypertrophy refer to?
when the muscle enlarges to much
NAME
this is when a muscle enlarges to much
hypertrophy
What happens if your lungs are not working right?
the diaphargm does not contract right and the acessary muscles have to work harder so they enlarge
ventalition is also called (1)
respiration
you have a (1)and (2)phrenic nerve
right and left
How many phrenic nerves are there?
a right and left
How many diaphragms are there?
a right and left domes
What is the phrenic nerve?
it supplies the diaphargm
NAME
this supplies the diaphargm
phrenic nerve
THe diaphargm is has (1)and (2)inverted
automatic and somatic
give example of how the diaphargm is somaticly inverted?
when you take a deep breath
Give an example of how the diaphargm is automaticly inverted?
when you are asleep
T or F
a person can live w 1 phrenic nerve
true
What happens in a person only have 1 phrenic nerve?
then only one dome of the diapharm contracts
If you lungs are not working then the (1)
diaphargm does not contract right and the accessary muscles enlarge
What does hypertrophy refer to?
when the muscle enlarges to much
NAME
this is when a muscle enlarges to much
hypertrophy
What happens if your lungs are not working right?
the diaphargm does not contract right and the acessary muscles have to work harder so they enlarge which cna compress the brachial plexus
What happens if the lungs are not working right?
the diaphargm does not contract right and the acessary muscles have to work harder so they enlarge which cna compress the brachial plexus
What does TOS stand for?
thoracic outlet syndrome
What is TOS?
is when the brachial plexus is compressed
NAME
this when the brachial plexus is compressed
TOS
What can TOS?
can be caused by the lungs not working which causes the accesary muscles to hypertrophy thus compressing the brachial plexus
NAME
this can be caused by the lungs not working which causes the acessary muscles to work harder and enlarging--thus compressing the brachial plexus
TOS
NAME
during this, the rib cage's vol decreased and air pressure increases
expiration
During expiration, the rib cage's vol (1)and air pressure (2)
(1)decreases (2)increases
What is the intercostal space?
is the space btwn each pair of ribs
NAME
this is the space btwn each pair of ribs
intercostal space
What are (3)muscles located in the intercostal space in order?
(1)external intercostal (2)internal intercostal (3)innermost intercostal
NAME
this has three muscles in it--the external intercostal, internal intercostal, and the innermost intercostal muscles
intercostal space
How many intercostal spaces are there?
11
There are (1)intercostal spaces
11
What is the external intercostal do?
e for elevates the ribs abd i during inspiration
NAME
during inspiration, this elevates the ribs
external intercostal
What kind of fibers does the external intercostal have?
fibers passing inferiorly and medially from rib
NAME
this has fibers passing inferiorly and medially from the rib
the external intercostal
How are the differ muscles found in the intercostal space different? (3)
(1)external intercostal- the fibers run inferiorly and medially from the rib (2)iternal intercostal- the muscles run at right angles (3)innermost intercostal- fibers run inferiorly and mediallly and pass the intercostal arteries,veins, and nerves
How are the differ muscles found in the intercostal space different? (3)
(1)external intercostal- the fibers run inferiorly and medially from the rib (2)iternal intercostal- the muscles run at right angles (3)innermost intercostal- fibers run inferiorly and mediallly and pass the intercostal arteries,veins, and nerves
NAME
in the most inferior intercostal spaces this muscle is continous w the external obliqe muscles of the abdomen
external intercostal
Describe what the internal intercostal muscles are like
they course at right angles
NAME
these intercostal muscles course at right angles
iternal intercostal muscles
the internal intercostal muscles course at (1)
right angles
NAME
this is the deepest layer of the intercostal space
innermost intercostal space
NAME
this can be found at the superfical layer of the intercostal space
external intercostal sapce
Describe what the fibers are like for the innermost intercostal muscle?
the fibers run inferiorly and medially but btwn the two layers pass the intercostal arteries, veins, and nerves
NAME
this muscle has fibers that run inferiorly and medially but btwn the two layers pass the intercostal arteries, veins, and nerves
innermost intercostal muscles
Where are the subcostal muscles most often found?
in the inferior thorax
NAME
these are found most often in the inferior thorax
subcostal muscles
Where is the tranverse thoracis muscle located?
on the deep surface of the sternum passing to the costal cartilage 2-6
NAME
these muscles are found on the deep surface of the sternum passing to the costal cartilage 2-6
tranverse thoracis muscle
What does the levator costarum do?
elevates the ribs
NAME
this muscle elevates the ribs
levatores costarum
Where can you find the levator costarum?
at the proximal attachment on the tranverse processes and btwn the tubercle and angle of eafch rib below
NAME
these muscles can be found at the proximal attachment on the tranverse processes and btwn the tubercle and angle of each rib below
levator costarum
What are the additiontal muscles of respiration? (5)
(1)serratus posterior superior (2)serratus posterior inferior (3)scalenus anterior (4)scalenus medius (5)scalenus posterior
NAME
these muscles incude the serratus posterior superior, serratus posterior inferior, scalenus anterior, scalenus medius, and scalenus posterior
additional muscles of respiration
What are the additiontal muscles of respiration? (5)
(1)serratus posterior superior (2)serratus posterior inferior (3)scalenus anterior (4)scalenus medius (5)scalenus posterior
What are the main muscles of respiration? (5)
(1)diaphargm (2)external intercostal (3)internal intercostal (4)innermost intercostal (5)subcostal
NAME
these include the diaphargm, external innercostal, internal intercostal, the innermost intercostal, and the subcostal muscle
the muscles of respiration
Where does the serratus posterior superior attach?
it attaches on the spinous processes of the last cervical vertebrae and the first two thoracic vertebrae (2)the angles of ribs 2-5
NAME
this muscles attaches on the spinous processes of the last cervical vertebrae and first 2 thoracic vertebrea and the angles of ribs 2-5
serratus posterior superior
What is the function of the serratus posterior superior?
it elevates the ribs 2-5
NAME
this elevates the ribs 2-5
serratus posterior superior
Where is the serratus posterior inferior attach?
the spinous process of T11-L2 and (2)inferior border of ribs 9-12
NAME
this muscle attaches at the spinous process of T11-L2 and inferior border of ribs 9-12
serratus posterior inferior
What does the serratus posterior inferior do?
it flexes the ribs aiding in inspiration
NAME
this muscle flexes the ribs aiding in inspiration
serratus posterior
Make a chart of the muscles of respiration and accessary muscles of the respiration w functions
see notes
Make a chart of the muscles of respiration and accessary muscles of the respiration w functions
see notes
Make a chart of the muscles of respiration and accessary muscles of the respiration w functions
see notes
Where is the scalenus medius located?
it attachs on the tubercles of C2-7 to superior surface of the first rib
NAME
this attaches on the tubercle of C2-C7 to the superior surface of the first rib
scalenus medius
Where does the scalneus anterior attach?
from the anterior tubercle of C3-6 and on the first rib
NAME
this attaches from the anterior tubercle of C3-C6 and on the first rib
scalenus anterior
Where is the scalenus posterior located?
the posterior tubercles of C 4-6 to the 2nd rib
NAME
this attachs on the posterior tubercle of C4-C6 to the 2nd rib
scalenus posterior
What does the scalenus posterior do?
elevate the first 2 ribs and are critcal in quiet respiration
NAME
these muscles elevate the first 2 ribs and are critical in quiet respiration
scalenus posterior
What are the (3)scalene muscles in order?
(1)scalenus anterior (2)scalenus medius (3)scalenus posterior
NAME
there are three of this muscle: anterior, medius, and posterior
scalenus
WHere is the brachial plexus located?
it is sandwiched in btwn the scalenus anterior and medius
NAME
this is sandwiched btwn the scalenus anterior and medius
brachial plexus
What are the (5)andominal muscles? (from superfical to deep)
(1)rectus andominus (2)external oblique (3)internal oblique (4)tranverse abdominus (5)auadratus lumbroum
What are the (5)andominal muscles? (from superfical to deep)
(1)rectus andominus (2)external oblique (3)internal oblique (4)tranverse abdominus (5)auadratus lumbroum
What are the (5)andominal muscles? (from superfical to deep)
(1)rectus andominus (2)external oblique (3)internal oblique (4)tranverse abdominus (5)auadratus lumbroum
What is the rectus sheath?
is a sheath that encloses the rectus abdominus
NAME
this is sheath that encloses the rectus abdominus
rectus sheath
What does the rectus abdominus do?
flexes the trunk
NAME
this muscle flexes the trunk
rectus abdominus
NAME
this is the most powerful trunk flexor
rectus abdominus
What is the most powerful trunk flexor?
rectus abdominus
NAME
this muscle is known as the "6 pack"
rectus abdominus
What gives the rectus abdominus its well developed appearance?
the tendious intersections of the rectus abdominus
The anterior rectus sheath of the rectus abdominous is bound to the rectus at several points called (1)
tendinous intersections
What are tendinous intersections?
is where the anterior rectus sheath is bound to the rectus andominous muscle
What does inferiormedially mean?
it means that the fibers run inferiorly and medially
NAME
this is jst another way of saying the fibers run inferiorly and medially
inferiormedially
Where does the external oblique attach? (3)
(1)5th to 12th ribs on the iliac crest (2)rectus sheath
NAME
this attaches at the 5th to 12th ribs on the iliac crest and rectus sheath
external oblique
What are the fibers like for the external oblique?
they run inferiorly and medially
NAME (2)
these have fibers that run inferiorly and medially
extneral oblique and the external intercostal muscles
What are the fibers like for the internal oblique?
the fibers run at right angles
NAME (2)
this muslces fiber run at right angles
(1)internal oblique (2)internal intercostal muscles
Where is the internal oblique loacted?
(1)ilaic crest and the inguinal ligament (2)cartilages of the ribs 10-12 and aponeurosis of the rectus sheath
NAME
this muscles attaches at the ilaic crest and the inguinal ligament and the cartilages of the ribs 10-12 and aponeurosis of the rectus sheath
internal oblique
What are the fibers of the tranverse andominus like?
they run horziontally
NAME
this muscle has fibers that run horzionatally
tranverse abdominus
Tranverse is another name for (1)
horziontal
(1)is another name for horziontal
tranverse
Where does the tranverse abdominus attach?
(1)off the deep surfaces of the costal cartilage of ribs 7-12
NAME
these muscles attach off the deep surfaces of the costal cartilage of ribs 7-12
tranverse abdominus
What does the tranverse abdominus do? (2)
it regulates the intraabdominal pressure (2) are active in forced expiration
NAME
this muscles regualtes the intraabdominal pressure and are active in forced expiration
tranverse abdominus
Where does the quadratus lumborum attach?
at the iliac crest and tranverse process of lumbar vertebrae 1-4 and the 12th rib
NAME
this muscle attaches at the iliac crest and the tranverse process of the lumbar vertebrae 1-4 and the 12th rib
quadratus lumborum
What does the each invidual quadratus lumbroum do?
invidually it laterally flexs the trunk
NAME
invidually this muscle laterally flexes the trunk
quadratus lumbroum
What does the two paired muscles of the quadratus lumbroum do? (2)
stablize (2)slightly depress the 12th rib
NAME
these stablize and slightly depress the 12th rib
quadratus lumborum
All visceral organs are supplied by the (1)
ANS
All (1)organs are supplied by the ANS
visceral
Draw a chart of the divisions of the ANS
see notes
Draw a chart of the divisions of the ANS
see notes
What is the cranial nerve 7?
is the facial nerve
NAME
this is the facial nerve
cranial nerve 7
NAME
this is primarly motor to the muscles of facial expression
cranial nerve 7
Where does the C nerve 7 exit?
the skull through the stylomastoid foramena
NAME
this nerve exits through the skill through the stylomastoid foramen, passes deep to the parotid gland and sends 5 branches to the face
C nerve 7
Describe the path of the C7?
the nerve exits the (1)skull at the stylonmastoid foramen (2)passes deep to the parotid gland (3)sends 5 branches to the face
What are the (5)branches of the face that the C7 supplies?
(1)temporal (2)zygomatic (3)buccal (4)mandibular (5)cervical
NAME
this supplies these five branches--temporal, zygomatic, buccal, mandibular, and cervical
C7
(1) pass from C7 to the pterygopalatine and the submandibular ganglia
paraysmpathic preganlinonic neurons
paraysmpathic preganlinonic neurons pass from the (1)to the pterygopalatine and the submandibular ganglia
C7
paraysmpathic preganlinonic neurons pass from the C7 to the (1)and (2)
pterygopalatine and submandibular ganglia
paraysmpathic preganlinonic neurons pass from the C7 to the (1)and (2)
pterygopalatine and submandibular ganglia
paraysmpathic preganlinonic neurons pass from the C7 to the (1)and (2)
pterygopalatine and submandibular ganglia
what does the sensory component of the parasympathic pregalglionic neuron do?
it innervtes the tongue, palate, and external ear
NAME
this innervtes the tongue, palate, and external ear
sensory component of the parasympathic preganglionic neruon?
What does the special sensory fiber of the parasympathic preganglionic neruon do?
are the fibers of taste and form the 2/3 of the tongue
NAME
these are the fibers from taste and form the 2/3 of the tongue
special sensory fiber of the parasympathic preganglionic neruon
What is the chorda tympani?
is where the special sensory fiber of the parasympathic preganglionic neruon are carried
NAME
this is where the special sensory fiber of the parasympathic preganglionic neruon
chorda tympani
Describe the path of the special sensory fiber of the parasympathic preganglionic neruons?
it hitches a ride from tongue w the lingual branch of V3 to the main nerve to and enters the skull through the stylomastoid forarmen
NAME
this it hitches a ride from tongue w the lingual branch of V3 to the main nerve to and enters the skull through the stylomastoid forarmen
the speacil sensory fibers of the parasympathetic preganglionic neuron
C10 is also called the (1)
vagus nerve
(1)is also called the vagus nerve
C10
What is the vagus nerve?
is the wanderer
NAME
this nerve is the wanderer
vagus nerve
Why is the vagus nerve the wanderer?
bc it arises from the medulla and branches throughout the neck, thorax, and abdomen and as far as the the distal end of the tranverse colon
NAME
this nerve arises from the medulla and branches throughout the neck, thorax, and abdomen and as far as the distal end of the tranverse colon
vagus nerve
NAME
this nerve is latin for wanderer
vagus nerve
What is vagus latin for?
wanderer
NAME
this nerve is primarly composed of preganglionic parasympathetic neurons
vagus nerve
What is the vagus primarly composed of?
preganglionic parasympathic neurons
What is the vagus primarly composed of?
preganglionic parasympathic neurons
What is the vagus primarly composed of?
preganglionic parasympathic neurons
Draw a diagraphm abot the C7 and vagus nerve
see notes
Draw a diagraphm abot the C7 and vagus nerve
see notes
Draw a diagraphm abot the C7 and vagus nerve
see notes
Draw a diagraphm abot the C7 and vagus nerve
see notes
NAME
this begins in the alimentary canal and runs aprox 25 cm beginning at the level of the cricoid cartilage passing through the diaphragm and terminating at into the stomach
esophagus
Where does the esophagus terminate?
in the stomach
Where does the esophagus begin?
at the cricoid cartilage
Aprox how long is the esophagus?
25 cm
The abdominal cavity shows both (1)and (2)
parietal and visceral peritoneum
What is the perietal peritoneum?
lines the body wall and has a double layer
NAME
this lines the body wall of the abdominal cavity
perietal peritoneum
What is the visceral peritoneum?
is attached to the external surface of a number of abdominal organs
NAME
this is attached to the external surface of a number of abdominal organs
visceral peritoneum
What is mesentery?
is a double layer of visceral peritoneum through which nerves and vascular supply to reach organs
NAME
this is a double layer of visceral peritoneum
mesentery
What is retroperitoneal mean?
refers to organ without a mesentery
NAME
this refers to organs without a mesentery
retroperitoneal
Give a example of a retroperitoneal organ
kidney
The kidneyes are example of a (1)organ
retroperitoneal
What is the cardaic orifiace?
is the entrance of the esophagus into the stomach
NAME
this is entrance of the esophagus into the stomach
cardiac orifiace
What is the fundus?
is the portion of the stomach superior to the entrance of the esophaguss
NAME
this is the portion of the stomach superior to the entrance of the esophaguys
fundus
What is the body of the stomach?
is the central portion of the stomach
NAME
this is the central portion of the stomach
body
What are the differ areas of the stomach? (3)
(1)fondus (2)body (3)pyloric
NAME
this has three parts: fondus, body, and pyloric
stomach
What is the pyloric orifice?
is whre the stomach is continous w the duodenum
NAME
this is where the stomach is continous w the duoedenum
pyloric orfice
What is pylroic sphincter?
is a circular layer of smooth muscle that controls the pyloric orfice
NAME
this is a circular layer of smooth muscle that controls the pyloric orfice
pyloric sphincter
What kind of curvatures does the stomach have? (2)
(1)greater and lesser curvature
NAME
this organ has two curvatures: greater and lesser
stomach
NAME
this organ has a lesser and greater omentum
stomach
What is the lesser omentum?
it connects the liver w the proximal duodenum and the lesser curve of the stomach
NAME
this connects the liver w the proximal duodenum and the lesser curve of the stomach
lesser omentum
What is the greater omentum?
it hangs like an apron from the greater curvature, obscuring the small intestine
NAME
this hangs like an apron from the greater curvature, obscuring the small intestine
greater omentum
What is the duodenum?
is the c chaped structure at the orgin of the small intestine
NAME
this the C shaped structure at the orgin of the small intestine
duodenum
What are the differ parts of the duodenum(4)
(1)superior (2)ascending (3)horizonral (4)ascending
NAME
this has four parts: superior, ascending, horizontal, and ascending
duodenum
What is the major duodenal papilla?
presents the joint opening of the greater pancreatic and common bile ducts
NAME
this presents the joint opening of the greater pancreatic and common bile ducts
major duodenal papilla
What is the duodenojejunal flexure?
is where the duodenum ends
nAME
this is where the duodenum ends
duodenojejunal flexure
Is the duodenum a true muscle?
no
Why is the duodenum not a true muscle?
bc the it is composed of skeletal, elastic fibers, and smooth muscle
T or F
the duodenum is true muscle
false
What are (3)parts of the small intestine?
(1)duodenum (2)jejunum (3)ileum
NAME
this has three parts: duodenum, jejunum, and the ileum
small intestine
What is the jejunum?
comprises 40% of the remaining length of the small intestine
NAME
this comprises 40% of the remaining length of the small intestine
jenunum
jenunum comprises (1)of the remaining length of the small intestine
jenunum
T or F
there is a clear junction btwn the jejunum and the illeum
false
is there a clear junction btwn the jejunum and the illeum?
no
What is the ileum?
is a terminal portion of the small intestine composing 60% of it
NAME
this is a terminal portion of the small intestine composing of the 60% of it
ileum
What is the ileoceceal orfice?
is where the ileum joints the beginning of the large intestine
the large intestine is also called the (1)
colon
the (1)is also called the colon
large intestine
What is the large intestine?
surrounds the small intestine on 3 sides like an inverted U
NAME
this surrounds the small intestine on 3 sides like an inverted U
large intestine
What is the teniae coli?
are 3 longitudinal bands of muscle
NAME
these are three longitudinal bands of muscle
teniae coli
Where are the teniae coli located?
on the colon
Are there teniae coli on the jejunum and the ileum?
no
T or F
there are teniae coli on the jejunum and the ileum
false
How can u clear id the colon from the jejunum and the ileum?
yes bc the jejunum and the ileum do not have a teniae coli while the colon does
What are appendices epipploicae?
are small pouches of fat-filled peritoneum seen through the colon
NAME
these are small pouches of fat-filled peritoneum seen through out the colon
appendices epipploicae
What is the cecum?
is a blind pouch at the inferior end of the ascending colon
NAME
this is a blind pouch at the inferior end of the ascending colon
cecum
NAME
this has a pouch called a cecum and the appendix
the large intestine
The colon has a (1)and (2)
a pouch called cecum and appendix
NAME
this has a pouch called cecum and appendix
colon
NAME
this is about 9 cm long and contains abundant amounts of lymphatic tissues
appendix
What is the appendix?
is about 9 cm long and contains abundant amounts of lymathic tissue
What is the mesoappendix?
refers to how the appendix has its own mesentery
NAME
this refers to how the appendix has its own mesentery
mesoappendix
The hepatic flexure is also called the (1)
right colic flexure
the (1)is also called the right colic flexure
hepatic flexure
the ascending colon passes retroperitoneally to a point jst inferior to the liver where it bends sharply to the left to become the (1)
tranverse colon
the (1)passes retroperitoneally to point jst inferior to the liver where it bends sharply to the left to become the tranverse colon
ascending colon
The ascending colon passes retroperitoneally to a point jst inferior to the (1)where it (2)to become the tranverse colon
(1)liver (2)bends sharply to the left
What is the hepatic flexure?
refers to where the ascending colon bends sharply to become the tranverse colon
NAME
this refers to where the ascending colon bends sharply to become the tranverse colon
hepatic flexure
Explain how the large intestine changes (3)
(1)the ascending colon bends passes to a point inferiorly past the liver to bend sharply to the left to become the tranverse colon (2)tranverse colon passes to the left to become toward the spleen where it again bends sharply to become the descending colon (3)the descending colon then contintues as the sigmoid colon
Explain how the large intestine changes (3)
the colon goes from (1)ascending (2)tranverse (3)descending (4)sigmoid
Explain how the large intestine changes (3)
(1)the ascending colon bends passes to a point inferiorly past the liver to bend sharply to the left to become the tranverse colon (2)tranverse colon passes to the left to become toward the spleen where it again bends sharply to become the descending colon (3)the descending colon then contintues as the sigmoid colon
The (1)colon continues as the sigmoid colon
descending
the descending continues as the (1)colon
sigmoid
the (1)colon passes to the left toward the spleen where it bends sharply to become the descending colon
tranverse colon
the tranverse colon passes to the left toward the spleen where it bends sharply to become the (1)colon
descending
the tranverse colon passes to the left toward the (1)where it (2)sharply to become the descending colon
(1)spleen (2)bends
What is the splenic flexure?
is where the tranverse colon bends to become the descending colon
NAME
this refers to where the tranverse colon bends to become the descending colon
splenic flexure
NAME
this connects the colon to the rectum and has mesentery
mesocolon
What does the word vagus mean in latin?
wanderer
NAME
this is latin for wanderer
vagus
Where does the vagus nerve arive from?
medulla and branches throughout the thorax and abdomen as distal as the colon
NAME
this nerve arises from the medulla and branches throughout the thorax and the abdomen as distal as the colon
vagus nerve
What is the vagus nerve composed of for the most part?
preganglionic parasympathetic neurons
NAME
this nerve is composed primarly of preganglionic parasympathetic neurons
the vagus nerve
What do the preganglionic parasympathic nerusons do?
affect the carotid sinus, heart lungs, digestive organs, and associative glands that contain some of each of the other three type of neurons
NAME
this type of neuron affects the cartoid singus, heart, lungs, digestive organs, and associative organs that contain some of each of the other three types of neurons
preganglionic parasympathic neurons
What do the motor fibers of the preganglionic parasympathetic neurons do?
they pass to the muscles of the larnyx and the pharynx
NAME
this fibers of pass to the muscles of the larnyx and the pharynx
motor fibers of the preganglionic parasympathetic neurons
What are the sensory fibers of the preganglionic parasympathetic neurons do?
sense the organs for pain in the skin of the external auditory meatus
NAME
these sense the organs for pain in the skin of the external auditory meatus
sensory fibers of the preganlgionic parasympathetic neurons
What are the speacil sensory fibers of the preganglionic parasympathic neurons?
fibers for taste from the epiglottis and strech receptors in the walls of the great vessels and the lung
NAME
these are fibers for taste from the epiglottis and sterch receptors in the walls of the great vessels and the lungs
speacil sensory fibers of the preganglionic parasympathic neurons?
The (1)covers the exterior of the heart
visceral pericardium
NAME
this recieves venous blood from the venae cavae
right atrium
What is the fossa ovalis?
is part of the right atrium that is a prenatal shunt btwn the atria
NAME
this part of the right atrium that acts as a prenatal shunt btwn the atria
fossa ovalis
What is the coronary sinus?
is the main venous drainage of the heart
NAME
this is the main venous drainage of the heart
coronary sinus
What are (3)important features of the right atrium?
(1)fossa ovalis (2)has opening of the inferior vena ova w its valve or lip which serves to direct the blood toward the foramen ovale during the fetal period (3)coronary sinus
NAME
this has fossa ovalis, an openin of the inferior vena cava w its valve or lip which serves to direct the blood toward the foramen ovale during the fetal period and the coronary sinus
right atrium
What is the right veentricle characterized by?
an atrioventricular valve w three cusps
NAME
this is characterized by an atrioventricular valve w three cusps
right ventricle
What are three cusps of the atrioventricular valve? (3)
(1)anterior (2)posterior (3)medial
NAME
this has three cusps: anterior, posterior, and medial
atrioventricular valve of the right ventricle
What does the pulomarny semilunar valve do?
prevents backflow of blood into the right ventricle during ventricular filling
NAME
this prevents backflow of blood into the right ventricle during ventricular filling
pulmonary semilunar valve
the left atrium is also called the (1)
posterior atrium
(1)is also called the posterior atrium
left atrium
the left atrium is also called the (1)
posterior atrium
NAME
oxygen rich blood from the lungs enters this chamber via 4 pulmonary viens
left atrium
Left atrium is charactered by a (1)
bicuspid valve
(1)is characterized by a bicuspid valve
left atrium
The bicuspid valve is also called the (1)
mitral valve
The (1)is also called the mitral valve
bicuspid valve
Why is the bicuspid valve called the mitral valve?
bc of its fancied resemblance to a biship's mitre
NAME
this is called the mitral valve bc of its resemblance to a bishop's mitre
bicuspid valve
Opening of the (1)is via bicuspid valve
left ventricle
the anterior cusp of the bicuspid valve is sometimes called the (1)
aortic cusp
The (1)of the biscuspid valve is sometimes called teh aortic cusp
anterior
Why is the anterior cusp of the biscuspid valve sometimes called the aortic cusp?
bc anterior cusp faces both the inflow of blood from the atrium and the outflow of blood from the ventricle
NAME
this is sometimes called the aortic cusp bc faces both the inflow of the blood from the atrium and the outflow of blood from the ventricle
anterior cusp of the biscuspid valve
What are some unique characteristics of the left ventricle?
(1)has a vicupsid valve (2)has many travercule carnae (3)aortic sinuses
NAME
this has a bicsupid valve, has many trabeculae caranae, a semilunar vavle, and aortic sinuses
left ventricle
What does the aortic semilunar valve do when it closes?
the closure of the valve is assisted by retrograde accumulation of the last portion of blood ejected from the ventricle
What does the aortic semilunar valve do when it opens?
opening of the semiulnar valve during the next ventricular contraction assists in pushing blood in the aortic sinuses into the coronary arteries
What does the aortic semilunar valve do when it opens?
opening of the semiulnar valve during the next ventricular contraction assists in pushing blood in the aortic sinuses into the coronary arteries
Draw a diagraphm of the bronchi tree
see notes
Draw a diagraphm of the bronchi tree
see notes
What is the trachea?
is a cartilinious ring that has the adam's apple on top of it
NAME
this is a cartilingious ring that has the adam's apple on top of it
trachea
The (1)lies posterior to the trachea
esophagus
the esophagus lies posterior to the(1
trachea
the esophaguys lies (1)to the trachea
posterior
NAME
the posterior wall of the this i s a flattened membrane that can stretch during the passage of food
trachea
the trachea is in intimate relationship w the (1)
thyroid gland
the (1)is in intimate relationship w the thyroid gland
trachea
What is the isthums?
this is where the first 4 tracheal cartilages meet in the midline
NAME
this is where the first 4 tracheal cartilages meet in the midline
isthums
What is trachemotomy?
is an emergency procedure to create incesion so air can get into the lungs
NAME
this an emergency procedure to create an incesion so air can get into the lungs
trachemotomy
NAME
this structure is of significance bc its mucous membrane is quite senstive and is intimately involved in the cough reflex
carina
What is the carnia
is a structure that is significant bc it mucous membrane is quite senstive and is intimately involved in the cough reflex
NAME
this ends at approximately the level of T4 by bifurcating into the left and right primary bronchi
trachea
What is the apex?
is the most superior tip of the lungs
NAME
this is the most superior tip of the lung
apex
What is the base of the lung?
is the most inferior portion of the lung
NAME
this is the most inferior portion of the lung
base of the lung
What are the parts of the lung? (2)
(1)apex (2)base (3)root
Each lung is coverted intimately w (1)
visceral pleura
What is the root of the lung?
is the point of entry/exit of the primary bronchi and vessels
NAME
this is the point of entry/exit of the primary bronchi vessels
lung
NAME
this has 3 parts:apex, base, and root
lung
What are (2)unique features of the left lung?
they are associated w the position of heart (1)cardiac notch (2)cardiac impression
NAME
this has two unique features bc of its position to the heart: cardiac notch and the cardaic impression
left lung
What is the pleural cavity?
is a potential space btwn the visceral and parietal pleuras
NAME
this is a potential space btwn the visceral and parietal pleuras
pleural cavity
What are some unqiue features about the rectum? (3)
(1)it has neither teniae coli or mesentery (2)2 flexures (3)three folds
NAME
this has neither teniae coli, 2 flexures, and three folds
rectum
T or F
the rectum has teniae coli and mesentery
false
Does the rectum have teniae coli and mesentery?
no
What are the (2)flexures of the rectum?
(1)anteriorly concanve sacral flexure to conform w the curve of the sacrum (2) anteriorly convex perineal flexure for passage through the pelvic diaphragm and continuation w the anal canal and (2)
NAME
this has two flexures: an anteriorly concave sacral flexure to conform w the curve of the sacrum and an anteriorly convex perineal flexure for passage through the pelvic diaphargm and continuation w the anal canal
rectum
What are the (3)folds of the rectum?
(1)superior (2)middle (3)inferior folds
NAME
this three folds: superior, middle, and inferior
rectum
Describe the anal canal (2)
(1)features a large plexus of hemorrhoidal veins, (2)external and internal sphinctor muscles (3)anal columns richly endowed w venous plexues
NAMe
this has a large plexus of homorrhiodal veins and external and internal sphinctor muscles and anal columns richly endowed a venous plexues
anal canal
What is the anus?
is the inferior opening of the anal canal
NAME
this is the inferior opening of the anal canal
anus
Describe the pancreas
the head of the pancreas is nestled in the curvature of the dyodenum while the the body and tail point to the left and the spleen
NAME
the head of this is nestled in the curvature of the duodenum while the body and tail point to the left and the spleen
pancreas
Where is the head of the pancreas located?
it is nestled in the curvature of the dduodenum
What is carina?
this is where the primary bronchi splits
NAME
this is where the primary bronchi splits
carina
As you go proximal on the bronchi tree, tissues loses (1) and becomes (2)and then (3)
cartilage (2)muscle (3)pure pulomary lung tissue
Where does gas exchange occur?
at the alveoli
NAME
gas exchange occurs here
alevoli
What is the alevoli?
is where gas exchange occurs
What is bronchiitis?
is inflammation of the lungs
NAME
this inflammation of the lungs
bronchitis
Bronchitis is considered a (1)infection
lower respiratory
If bronchitis is big enought it might (1)
comprose a whole lung and become phenumena
if (1)is big enough it might comprose a whole lung and become phenumena
bronchitis
the lungs are divided up into (1)
segments
T or F
bc the lungs are divided up into segements you can remove a segment if its collapsed
true
NAME
this type of tissue is highly elastic and recoils
lung tissue
EACh lung has two layer covering it (1)and (2)
(1)parietal (2)viesceral layer
Digestive enzymes secreted by the pancreas enter the duodenum via the (1)
greater and accessary pancreatic ducts
Where is the liver located?
superior to the first portion of the duodenum
NAME
this is located superior to the first portion of the duodenum
liver
What are (2)subdivision of the right lobe of the liver?
(1)quadrate (2)caudate
NAME
this lobe of the liver--has two divisions: quadrate and caudate
right
What are the (2)lobes of the liver?
(1)larger right lobd (2)smaller left lobe
NAME
this has a larger right lobe and smaller left lobe
liver
right and left hepatic ducts leave thier respective lobe to unite as the (1)
common hepatic duct
What are is the subphrenic recess?
is a blind peritoneal pouch found btwn the deep surface of the diaphragm and superior surface of the liver
NAME
this is a blind peritoneal pouch found btwn the deep surface of the diaphargm and the superior surface of the liver
subphrenic recess
What is the coronary ligament?
is where the subphrenic recess ends
NAME
this is where the subphrenic recess ends
coronary ligament
What is the hepatorenal recess?
is a peritioneal pouch btwn the right kidney and the liver
NAME
this is a peritioneal pouch btwn the right kidney and the liver
hepatorneal recess
What is the differ bwtn the subphrenic recess and the hepatorenal recess?
(1)subphrenic recess-is a peritoneal pouch found btwn the deep surface of the diaphragm and the superior surface of the liver (2)hepatorenal recess=is a peritoneal pouch btwn the right kidney and the liver
What is the hepatorenal ligament?
is found at the superior end of the hepatorenal recess
NAME
this is found at the superior end of the heptatorenal recess
hepatorenal ligament
What is the bare area?
an area devoid of pertioneum found on the liver btwn the the heptaorenal ligament and the coronary ligament
NAME
this an area devoid of the pertioneum found on the liver btwn the heptaorenal ligament and the coronary ligament
bare area
Where is the gall bladder found?
btwn the inferior surface of the liver
NAME
this is found btwn the inferior surface of the liver
gall bladder
NAME
this is the outer layer of pleura covering the lung
pariteal layer
What is the parietal pleura of the lung?
is the outer layer of the lung
NAME
this is the inner pleura layer of the lung
visceral layer
What is the visceral layer of the lung?
is the inner layer of the lung
What is the pleura cavity?
is a cavity in btwn the visceral and periatel pleura
NAME
this is a cavity in btwn the visceral and the perietal pleura
pleura cavity
What is the hilus?
is th3 point of entry and exit of vessels and bronchi
NAME
this is the point of entry and exit of vessels and bronchi
hilus
NAME
this proviedes negative pressure during inspiration
tension btwn 2 pleura layers
tension btwn 2 pleura layers provides (1)
negative pressure during inspiration
The cystic duct meets the common (1)duct to form the (2)which usally unites w (3)for a joint opening into the descending portion of the duodenum
(1)hepatic duct (2)common bile duct (3)pancreatic duct
the (1)meets the common (2)to form the (3)which usallly unites w the (4)for a joint opening into the descending portion of the duodenum
(1)cystic duct (2)heptic duct (3)common bile duct (4)pancreatic duct
Describe the flow of waste from the gall bladder (4)
it goes from the (1)cystic duct (2)heptic duct (3)common bile duct (4)pancreatic duct
Where is the spleen located?
it is appended to the greater curvature of the stomach (2)and anchored to the left kidney
NAME
this is appended to the greater curvature of the stomach and anchored to the left kidney
spleen
What keeps the spleen appended to the greater curvature of the stomach?
gastrolienal ligament
What is the gastrolienal ligament?
keeps the spleen appended to the greater curvature of the stomach
NAME
this keeps the spleen appended to the greater curvature of the stomach
gastrolienal ligament
What anchors the spleen to the left kidney?
the lienorenal ligament
NAME
this anchors the spleen to the left kidney
lienorenal ligament
What is the lienorenal ligament?
it anchors the spleen to the left kidney
What are the functions of the liver?
(1)desctruction and removal of old red blood cells
NAME
its function is to destroy and remove old red blood cells
spleen
What is bilirubin? (2)
it helps to break down old red blood cells (2)the livers uses it in production of bile
NAME
this helps in the break down of old red blood cells and the liver uses it in the production of bile
bilirubin
What does it mean that the lung collapsed? (2)
it means that the lung loses negative presssure and the pleural cavity collapses (2)this causes 2 pleura layers to wrap around the lung==preventing it from expanding
What does it mean that the lung collapsed?(2)
it means that the lung loses negative presssure and the pleural cavity collapses (2)this causes 2 pleura layers to wrap around the lung==preventing it from expanding
What are the (4)chambers of the heart?
(1)2 atrium-left and right
(2)2 ventricles=left and right
NAME
this has 4 chambers--2 atrium (left and right) and 2 ventricles (left and right)
heart
Draw a diaphgram of the flow of blood to the heart
see notes
Draw a diaphgram of the flow of blood to the heart
see notes
NAME
this recieves venous blood from the superior and inferior vena cava
right atrium
the right atrium recieves (1)blood from the superior and inferior vena cava
venous
the right atrium recives venous blood from the (1)and (2)
(1)superior and inferior vena cava
What does the right atricle valve do?
it opens/closes to allow blood into the right atrium and right ventricle
NAME
this opens/closes to allow blood into the right atrium and right ventricle
right atrictle valve
What happens when the right atrictle valve closes?
the right ventricle contracts and ejects blood through the pulmonary trunk
the pulmonary trunk splits into the (1)and (2)that go to the (3)
right and left pulmonary arteries (3)lungs
NAME
this splits into the right and left pulomanary arteries that go to the lungs
pulmonary trunk
blood goes through (1)drain into the left atrium
left atrium
blood goes from the 4 pulmonary veins to the (1)
left atrium
blood moves to the left atrium to the (2)
left ventricle
blood moves from the (1) to the left ventricle
left atrium
blood moves from the left ventricle going through the (1)which is then ejected into the aorta as it leaves the left ventricle, it forms the aortic arch
atrenticular valve
blood going through the (1)throuhg the atrenticular valve is ejected into the aorta as it leaves the (2)it forms the aortic arch
left ventricle
blood going through the left ventricle, through the atrenticular valve is ejected into the (1)as it leaves the left ventricle to form the (20
(1)aorta (2)aortic arch
the aortic arch then becomes the (1)
descending aorta
How far does the descending aorta go?
descends down the thorax and pierces the diaphargm but does not go through the pelvis
Is there communication btwn the left and righ atrium?
no
T or F
there is communication btwn the left and right atrium
false
T or F
some people can communicate btwn the left and right atrium
true
the left ventricle is (1)than the right ventricle
thicker
how is the left and right ventricle different?
the left is thicker than the right
What are the affects of having a right and left atrium that can communicate btwn each other?
the heart works harder and delivers less quality blood
What are the coronary arteries?
they supply the heart muscle w blood or mycardium
NAME
these supply the heart muscle w blood or mycardium
coronary arteries
the (1)gets the best blood to the supercial myocardium
1st branch of the aorta
the first branch of the aorta gets the (1)blood to superifical (2)
(1)best (2)myocardium
What does MI stand for?
myocardio infract
MI is jst another name for (1)
heart attack
(1)is jt another name for heart attack
MI
How does a MI occur?(2)
occurs when fat blocks a coronary artery amd the heart cant get enough O2 (2)next the heart stops, heart tissue dies and is replaced by scar tisssue
How does a MI occur?(2)
occurs when fat blocks a coronary artery amd the heart cant get enough O2 (2)next the heart stops, heart tissue dies and is replaced by scar tisssue
Is stomach pain where people think it is?
unlike what people think when u have a stomach pain...the stomach is reallly posterior to the xphoid process and the pain is felt else where bc it radiates
the stomach is filled w (1)
HCL
NAME
this is filled w HCL
stomach
the stomach has (1)
2 sphinctors
HCL is a (1)
strong acid
NAME
this is an example of a strong acid
HCL in the stomach
NAME
this supplies the intercostal muscles, and the serratus posterior superior
intercostal nerve
What is the intercostal nerve? (4)
it supplies the (1)intercostal muscles (2)tranverse thoracic subcostal muscle (3)serratus superior(4)serratus inferior
NAME
this supplies the intercostal muscles, tranveres thoracic subcostal muscle, serratus superior and serratus inferior
intercostal muscle
What is the intercostal nerve? (4)
it supplies the (1)intercostal muscles (2)tranverse thoracic subcostal muscle (3)serratus superior(4)serratus inferior
the levator costarum is supplied by the (1)
posterior rami
Why do people who are taking chemo throw up and lose theeir hair ?
(1)bc HCl is a strong acid, stomach cells need to reproduce really fast (2)hair follices do this too (3)chemo kills cells that are highly mititoic
NAME
this kills cells that are highly mitotic
chemo
chemo kills cells that are highly (1)
mitioic
NAME
most digestion occurs here
small intestine
Most (1)occurs in the small intestine
digestion
Most (1)occurs in the large intestine
water absobrtion
NAME
most water absorbtion occurs here
large intestine
Where does most water absorbation occur?
large intestine
Where does most digestion occur?
small intestine
NAME
this acts as the body's buffer
bicarbonate
bicarbonate is the body's (1)
buffer
NAME
this is the body's buffer
bicarbonate
What are some functions of the liver? (3)
(1)synthesis digestive hormones (2)stores glucose in the form of glucogen (3)detoxifying properties
NAME
this has syntehsis digestive hormones, stores glucose in the form of the glucogen, and detoxifying properties
liver
What is unique about the liver?
it regenerates
NAME
this gland is unique bc it regenerates
liver
What are the only organs u can live w out? (3)
(1)gallbladder (2)spleen (3)appendex
T or F
you can live out your gallbladder, spleen, and appendex
true