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33 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
THE SCAPULAR MUSCLES
The intrinsic muscles of the shoulder.
Surface landmarks of the scapula:
superior angle of the scapula is at the level of T2.
Spine of the scapula-T3
Inferior angle-T7
DELTIOD-ORIGIN
Lateral third of the clavicle, spine of the scapula and acromion (opposite to the insertion of the trapezius
DELTIOD-INSERTION
Deltiod tuberosity of the humerous
Anterior fibers flex and medially rotate the arm

Posterior fibers extend and laterally rotate the arm;
the entire muscle abducts the arm
INFRASPINATUS AND TERES MINOR
Are attached to the greater tubercle of the humerus and lateral rotators of the arm
SUPRASPINATUS
Is also attached to the upper part of the greater tubercle of the humerus and is an abductor of the arm together with deltoid
SUBCAPULARIS
Is attached to the lessere tubercle and is a medial rotator of the arm; important in preventing anterior dislocation of the head of the humerus
TERES MAJOR
Is attached to the crest of the lesser tubercle or medial lip of the intertubercular groove of the humerus and is an extensor, internal rotator, and adductor of the humerus
INNERVATION OF THE INTRINSIC MUSCLES OF THE SHOULDER:
Supra- and infraspinatus are innervated by suprascapular n. C5,6; Subscapularis and teres major by subscapular C5,6; teres minor and deltoid by axillary nerve
SUBACROMIAL BURSA
(SHOULDER JOINT)
Is located between the acromion and deltoid above the tendon of the supraspinatus
SUBDELTOID BURSA
(SOULDER JOINT)
Is located between the muscles and greater tubercle.
ON THE BACK OF THE SCAPULA LONG HEAD OF THE TRICEPS TRAVELS BETWEEN THE TERES MAJOR AND MINOR AND 2 SPACES ARE FORMED?
TRIANGULAR-that transmits the circumflex scapular artery & QUADRANGULAR- that transmits posterior circumflex humeral artery and axillary nerve
AXILLARY NERVE
Wraps around the surgical neck of the humerous and can be damaged in downward dislocation of the humerous or fractures of the surgical neck
SUPRASCAPULAR NERVE
At the upper end of the scapula the this nerve travels below the superior transverse scapular ligament through the scapular foramen to enter the suprascapular fossa and the infrascapular fossa through the spinoglenoid notch. The suprascapular artery enters the suprascapular fossa above the ligament
SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY
Is divided for descriptive purposes into 3 parts
1.) Vertebral, Thyrocervical trunk, Internal thoracic
2.) branch of the 2nd part is the Costocervical Trunk
ANASTOMOSIS
On the back of the scapula we have an important arterial Anastomosis (connections) which is essential in formation of COLLATERAL CIRCULATION to bypass as obstruction
ELBOW JOINT
Is formed by the trochela and capitulum of the humerus and the trochlear notch of the ulna and the head of the radius.
Enclosed in the same capsule is the proximal radioulnar joint.
ELBOW IS STRENGTHENED BY?
Radial and Ulnar Collateral Ligaments
MOVEMENTS OF THE ELBOW
Main movements are flexion and extension but they are not exactly in a sagittal plane; the ulna and humerus form an angle 165 degrees laterally (carrying angle)
PROXIMAL and
DISTAL RADIOULNAR JOINT and
INTEROSSEOUS MEMBRANE
Which the radius and ulna are connected by
PROXIMAL JOINT
Is located between the head of the radius and the radial notch of the ulna
ANNULAR LIGAMENT
(PROXIMAL JOINT)
Encircles the head of the radius, so that the radius can rotate within the ligament but cannot be pulled downwards out of it
DISTAL RADIOULNAR JOINT
Is formed by the head of the ulna and ulnar notch of the radius.
ARTICULAR DISC
(DISTAL RADIOULNAR JOINT)
Is stretched between the ulnar notch of the radius and styloid process of the ulna; thus it covers the distal end of the ulna, seperating it and the distal radioulnar joint from the wrist joint. MOVEMENTS OF THE JOINT ARE- Pronation and Supination
CARPAL BONES ARE-
Scaphoid
lunate
triquetral
Pisiform
Trapezium
Trapezoid
Capitate
Hamate
WRIST JOINT
Is formed by Scaphoid, Lunate and Triquetral bones and the concave socket formed by the distal end of the radius and the Triangular articular disc
MAIN MOVEMENTS OF THE WRIST JOINT
Flexion
Extension
Abduction
Adduction (Abduction or Radial deviation, adduction or ulnar deviation)
EXTENSION-COMPRESSION FRACTURE OF DISTAL RADIUS
(Colles fracture)- distal fragment is dislocated proximally and posteriorly forming dinner-fork deformity. (In a growing child the distal readial epiphysis likely to be dislocated)
FLEXION-COMPRESSION FRACTURE OF DISTAL REDIUS
(Smith Fracture)- is less common-the distal fragment is displaced volarly (anteriorly)
CUTANEOUS NERVES OF THE ARM AND FOREARM ARE
Medial Cutaneous Nerves- of the arm and forearm are--branches of the brachial plexus
Lateral Cutaneous Nerve- of the forearm-- is continuation of the Musculocutaneous
Posterior Cutaneous Nerve of the arm and forearm branches are --radial nerve
UPPER LATERAL CUTANEOUS OF THE ARM (BRANCH OF AXILLARY)
Supplies the skin over the deltoid region
CEPHALIC VEIN
Is on the lateral aspect of the arm
BASILIC VEIN
Is on the medial aspect of the arm. There is usually a prominent communication, median cubital vein, from the cephalic to the basilic vein