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52 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
MAMMARY GLAND?
Is located in superficial fascia
MAMMARY GLAND IS A MODIFIED SKIN GLAND & IS COMPOSED OF 3 ANATOMICAL PARTS:
1.Cutaneous Layer
2.Stroma
3.Parenchyma or grandular tissue
GRANDULAR TISSUE IS COMPOSED OF
10-15 LOBES. the lobes are composed of smaller lobules. Lobes are drained by LACTIFEROUS DUCTS.
LACTIFEROUS DUCTS?
Open onto the nipples.
STROMA?
Is composed of subcutaneous fatty layer called ADIPOSE CAPSULE and dense connective tissue, which is located between the lobes and lobules CONNECTIVE TISSUE SUPPORTING LAYER
SUSPENSORY LIGAMENTS OF COOPER'S LIGAMENTS?
Fiberous bands of connective tissue which run from the deep fascia to the skin between the lobes of the gland.
NERVES OF THE MAMMARY GLAND?
Nerves of the gland-anterior and lateral cutaneous branches of the 2nd to 6th intercostal nerves.
BLOOD SUPPLY OF THE MAMMARY GLAND?
Blood supply-branches of axillary art.(lat. thoracic) perforating branches and anterior intercostal of internal throacic are enlarged in 2nd to 4th intercostal spaces to supply mammary gland & mammary branches are given off by 2,3,4, post intercostals
THE AXILLA?
Is a pyramidal space.
THE AXILLA ANTERIOR?
Axilla anterior wall is formed by pectoralis major and minor.
THE AXILLA POSTERIOR?
Axilla posterior wall is formed by subscapularis, teres major and latissimus dorsi
THE AXILLA MEDIAL?
Axilla medial wall is formed by ribs and intercostal muscles covered by serratus anterior
THE AXILLA LATERAL?
Axilla lateral wall is formed by the humerus covered by the coracobrachialis and biceps.
How many lymph nodes in the axilla?
There are 20 to 30
What do the lymph nodes in the axilla do?
the lymph nodes drain the lymph vessels of the upper limb and superficial vessel of the trunk from the clavicle to umbilicus
Recognized lymph nodes?
Groups are lateral (along axillary v), central, apical, pectoral (clong lateral thoracic v), and subscapular (along subscapular v). they all communicate with central nodes and EMPTY INTO APICAL NODES.
AXILLARY SHEATH?
Branchial plexus, axillary artery, axillary vein, are enclosed in this fascia
AXILLARY VEIN IS ?
Medial and anterior to the artery.
AXILLARY ARTERY IS?
A continuation of subclavian artery which is a branch of the aorta on the left side and of the branchiocephalic artery on the right side.
AXILLARY ARTERY BEGIN?
Axillary artery begins at the lateral border of the first rib as continuation of the subclavin
AXILLARY ARTERY ENDS?
The axillary artery ends at the lateral border of the teres major
1ST BRANCH OF THE AXILLARY ARTERY?
First part is medial to the pectoralis minor muscle. Its branch the superior thoracic (or supreme thoracic) is distributed to the upper part of the thoracic wall.
2nd BRANCH OF THE AXILLARY ARTERY?
The 2nd part lies posterior to the pectoralis minor. The branches are thoracoacromial and lateral thoracic. Thoracaoacromial has 4 branches- DELTIOD, ACROMIAL,PECTORAL & CLAVICULAR (Dead People Are Cavaders)
3rd BRANCH OF THE AXILLARY ARTERY?
The third part is lateral to the pectoralis minor. Branches of the 3rd part are the subscapular and anterior and posterior humeral circumflex arteries. The subscapular is divided into the thoracodorsal & circumflex scapular.
THORACODORSAL ARTERY AND CIRCUMFLEX SCAPULAR?
The thoracodorsal artery travels together with the thoracodorsal nerve and supplies the latissimus dorsi, serratus anterior and teres major; Circumflex scapular anterior travels through the triangular space to the back. the anterior and posterior humeral circumflex arteries encircle the surgical neck of the humerus. The posterior humeral circumflex artery travels together with the axillary nerve through the quadrangular space to the back
BRANCHIAL PLEXUS?
Is usually formed by the ventral rami of the spinal nerves C5-8,T1.
HOW MANY SPINAL NERVE PAIRS ARE THERE?
31 PAIRS: 8,12,5,5,1
VENTRAL ROOTS
Ventral roots of the spinal nerves take origin from the anterior horns. They consists of efferent or motor fibers.
POSTERIOR ROOTS
Posterior roots are afferent or sensory. cell bodies of these somatic afferent (or sensory) fibers are located in spinal or dorsal root ganglia, which are located in the intervertebral foramina
SPINAL NERVE
Dorsal roots and Ventral roots unite to form a spinal nerve that so far has 2 functional components:GSA, GSE. The spinal nerve is divided into ventral and dorsal rami
DORSAL RAMI
Dorsal rami supply the intrinsic muscles of the back and overlying skin
VENTRAL RAMI
Ventral rami form PLEXUS of spinal nerves
CERVICAL PLEXUS
Cervical plexus is formed by ventral rami of C1-C4
BRACHIAL PLEXUS
Brachial plexus is formed by C5-8
LUMBAR PLEXUS
Lumbar Plexus is formed by L1-4
SACRAL PLEXUS
Sacral plexus is formed by L4,5, S1-4
COCCYGEAL PLEXUS
Is formed by S4,5 C1
THORACIC NERVES
(VENTRAL RAMI)
DO NOT FORM PLEXUSES, THEY TRAVEL IN INTERCOSTAL SPACES.
SUPERIOR TRUNK
(branchial plexus)
In the formation of the brachial plexus the ventral rami of 5th and 6th cervical nerves unite
MIDDLE TRUNK
(branchial plexus)
The 7th of the cervical nerves remaines single and continues
INFERIOR TRUNK
(BRANCHIAL PLEXUS)
the 8th cervical and 1st thoracic unite
ANTERIOR AND POSTERIOR DIVISION OF THE BRANCHIAL PLEXUS
Just above the clavicle each of these trunks splits
In the axilla the 3 posterior divisions unite to form?
The POSTERIOR CORD of the plexus the upper 2 anterior divisions unite to form the lateral cord of the plexus and the lower anterior passes distally as the medial cord
BRANCHIAL PLEXUS
The vental rami and trunks in the neck (supraclavicular part of the brachial plexus; divisions are above and behind the middle third of the clavicle ; cords lie in the axilla (infraclavicular part). The plexus ends at the lower border of the pectoralis minor by dividing into the number of nerves.
BRANCHES FROM THE ROOT:
Dorsal scapular C5 to Rhomboids and Levator scapulae and long thoracic C5,6,7 to Serratus anterior
BRANCHES FROM THE TRUNK:
Suprascapular C5,6 to infraspinatus and supraspinatus.
BRANCHES FROM THE LATERAL CORD:
Lateral pectoral to pectoral muscles.
Musculocutaneous travels through the coracobrachialis muscle and supplies all the anterior muscles of the arm and continues as the lateral cutaneous of the forearm.
Lateral root of the median nerve.
BRANCHES FROM THE MEDIAL CORD:
Medial pectoral to pectoral muscles.
Medial root of the median nerve.
Ulnar nerve which supplies mostly muscles of the hand and 2 muscles of the forearm.
Medial cutaneous of the arm or medial brachial cutaneous. the lateral cutaneous branch of the 2nd intercostal (intercostobrachial) communicates with medial branchial cutaneous and lat. cutaneous branch of the 3rd intercostal. Together these 3 nerves supply the skin of the medial side of the arm and the floor of the axilla.
Medial cutaneous of the forearm-medial antebrachial cutaneous.
BRANCHES FROM THE POSTERIOR CORD:
Upper and lower scapular (C5,6) to subscapularis and teres major
Thoracodorsal C6,7,8 to latissimus dorsi
2 terminal branches- axillary to supply deltoid and teres minor and radial to supply the skin and muscles of the posterior side of the upper limb.
AXILLARY NERVE?
(POSTERIOR CORD)
Travels with posterior humeral circumflex artery through the quadrangular space around the surgical neck of the humerus to supply deltoid and teres minor.
RADIAL NERVE (POSTERIOR CORD)
Radial nerve travels to the back of the arm together with the deep or profunda brachial artery to supply all the muscles and skin of the back of the upper limb
CHRONIC INJURIES OF THE BRACHIAL PLEXUS AND THE AXILLARY ARTERY?
Are sometimes grouped together as "thoracic outlet syndrome" or "neurovascular compression syndrome"