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58 Cards in this Set

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HISTOLOGY?
Studies the body structures with the help of a microscope
TISSUES?
Are composed of a group of cells that are similar in structure, function and embryonic development
4 BASIC TYPES OF TISSUES?
1.) Epithelial
2.) Muscular
3.) Connective
4.) Nervous
ORGAN?
2 or more tissues combined together
SYSTEM?
The ability of organs to function for general well being of the body is enhanced by the fact that certain organs work together
10 MAJOR SYSTEMS IN THE HUMAN
BODY?
1.Integumentary 6.Circulatory
2.Skeletal 7.Resipiratory
3.Muscular 8.Digestive
4.Nervous 9.Urinary
5.Endocrine 10.Reporductive
EPITHELIAL TISSUE?
Forms the outer layer of the skin- the epidermis;lining of the digestive tue,ventral body cavities,blood vessels and some of the glandular ducts.
Also the epothelium is involved in the process of absorption, secretion, and excretion.
CONNECTIVE TISSUES?
*Attaches to the skin-to underlying tissue, forming the layer called SUBCUTANEOUS or SUPERFICIAL FASCIA or HYPODERMIS
CONNECTIVE TISSUES?
*Fills the space- between the organs and thus holds them in place.

* Serves as a storage of energy reserves
CONNECTIVE TISSUES?
*Surrounds and supports the blood vessels, participating in exchange of metabolites between the blood and tissues
CONNECTIVE TISSUES?
* Forms the TENDONS OF MUSCLES and LIGAMENTS & VARIOUS FIBROUS MEMBRANES. ie. fascia and aponeuroses(EXPANDED TENDONS)
CONNECTIVE TISSUES?
*Plays a role in the DEFENSE MECHANISM AND IN TISSUE REPAIR after injury
CARTILAGE & BONE are varieties of connective tissue
MUSCLE TISSUES, WHAT R THE 3
TYPES?
1. Smooth

2. Cardiac

3. Skeletal
SKELETAL TISSUES?
Functionally VOLUNTARY, have long cylindrical cells, multiple nuclei are peripherally located;transverse dark & light bands alternate along the myofibrils & give skeletal cells a characteristic striated appearance
VISCERAL (SMOOTH) MUSCLES?
Involuntary, have a single centrally located nucleus and are spindle shaped cells
CARDIAC MUSCLES?
Striated appearence but is also Involuntary. Has centrally located nuclei, intercalated discs at the junctions of adjacent cells. The cells are irregular in shape and for a BRANCHING NETWORK
MUSCLE BELLY?
The muscle is composed of a fleshy part
MUSCLES ARE COMPOSED OF?
Tendons of origin and insertion
MUSCLES ARE ATTACHED TO?
Bones close to the joints on which they act. Thus they lose mechanical advantage over the FULCRUM(joint) but gain in speed and range of movement
TENDONS?
Are much stronger and tougher than muscles. A very large muscle can act through a small tendon. Tendons are composed against bony surfaces, they are frequently protected by the development in their substance of small, cartilage-covered, SESAMOID bone for articulation with that surface
WHAT DOES THE POWER OF A MUSCLE
DEPEND ON?
* NUMBER AND DIAMETER
LONGITUDINAL MUSCLES?
Produce and great range of motions
PENNATE (FEATHER-LIKE)MUSCLES?
Produce a smaller range of movement but they are more powerful (uni-, bi-,multi- pennate)
WHAT ARE SKELETAL MUSCLES
SUPPLIED BY?
* BLOOD VESSELS AND NERVES
NEUROVASCULAR BUNDLE?
Located on the deep surface of the muscle and so is prtected to some extent from injury
classifications of the muscles

PRIME
Movers that produce a desired movement
classifications of the muscles

SYNERGISTS
Aid in a particular movement
classifications of the muscles

ANTAGONISTS
Oppose the particular movement
INTRINSIC MUSCLES?
Have their origin and insetion in the same part of the body
EXTRINSIC MUSCLES?
Travel from one part of the body to another
BONES ARE GROUPED INTO?
Axial and Appendicular Skeleton

axial- consists of bones of the head, neck, and trunk

appendicular-bones of the limbs, including those forming the pectoral(shoulder) and pelvic girdles
JOINTS?
3 types
Individual bones are connected by.
1. Fibrous Joints
2. Cartilaginous Joints
3. Synovial Joints
FIBROUS JOINTS OR SYNARTHROSES?
When bones are connected by fibrous connective tissue
2 TYPES OF FIBROUS JOINTS
1. SUTURES-small, irregular, worm-like bones (IF the amount of fibrous tissue is minimal, it is termed a SUTURE and seen in flat bones of the skull

2. SYNDESMOSES- unites the bones with a sheet of fibrous tissue, either a liagment or a fibrous membrane. (This tissue in the forearm is a sheet of fibrous tissue that joins the radius and ulna in a syndesmosis-joint is partially moveable
SYNOSTOSES?
At about 25 years of age, the fibers of the suture begin to be replaced by bone
SYNDESMOSIS?
Articulations with larger amounts of fibrous tissue between the bones
CARTILAGINOUS JOINTS or
AMPHIARTHROSES?
When bones are united by cartilage
2 TYPES OF CARTILAGE JOINTS?
1. Synchondroses-primary cartilage joints. The bones are united by hyaline cartilage, permits slight bending during early life. Present during development of a long bone. Permit growth in length of bone
2 TYPES OF CARTILAGE JOINTS?
2. Symphyses- are strong slightly moveable joints united by fibrocartilage. The fibrocartilaginous intervertebral discs between the vertebrae consists of binding connective tissue that joins the vertebrae together, joints provide strength and shock absorption
MOST OF THE JOINTS IN THE BODY
ARE--SYNOVIAL (DIARTHROSES)--

4 FEATURES?
1. The articular surfaces are covered by a thin layer of hyaline cartilage
2. The joint is enclosed by an articular capsule
3. Inner surface of the capsule is lined with a synovial membrane
4. Synovial membrane secrets synovial fluid, which lubricates the joints, plays a role in the defense mechanism & nourishment
SOME JOINTS HAVE DISCS OR
MENISCI?
They aid in lubrication and congruity of the joint.
THE NERVES IN JOINTS?
There is a rich supply of nerves to the joint. Nerve endings are located in the articular capsule and ligaments (hands and feet). The nerves are branches of the same nerves that supply the overlying skin & muscles(Hilton's Law)-branches of muscles that cross and move the joint
PROPRIOCEPTION?
The main type of sensation from the joint, which provides information concerning the movements & positions of the body parts
PAIN FIBERS?
Are numerous in the capsule and ligaments
CLASSIFICATION OF MOVEMENTS
OF JOINTS?
UNIAXIAL
BIAXIAL
MULTIAXIAL

ALL IN SHOULDER JOINTS
MOVEMENTS PRODUCED BY JOINTS?
Flexion(forwar)/Extension
(backwards) -- in the transverse
axis(straight across the chest)
MOVEMENTS PRODUCED BY JOINTS?
Abduction(the upper limb is moved laterally, or away from the midline of the body)
/Adduction(moved toward the midline of the body)--in the Sagittal axis (through the shoulder joint)
MOVEMENTS PRODUCED BY JOINTS?
Medial rotation- at the shoulder joint when humerous is rotated internally---IN reference of longitudinal axis bone/ Lateral rotation- upper limb moves the humerus(arm) externally/ circumduction
CLASSIFICATIONS OF JOINTS ACCORDING TO SHAPE OF THEIR ARTICULAR SURFACES?
1. Plane-gliding or sliding movement
2. Hinge(GINGLYMI)-permit flexion & extension only
3. Pivot(TROCHOID)-rotation around a central axis
4. Ellipsoid-
5.Sellar(SADDLE)-abduction/adduction, & flexion and extension
6.Spheroidal (BALL & SOCKET)-
7.Bicondylar-
2 OTHER STRUCTURES OF THE SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE? (NOT APART OF THE SYNOVIAL JOINT)
1. Bursae
2. Tendon Sheaths
They are doubled layered synovial sacs filled with synovial fluid, which reduce friction
5 SYMPTOMS OF INFLAMMATION
1.Tumor(sewlling)
2.Rubor(redness)
3.Calor(increase local temperature
4.Dolor(pain)
5.Functio Laesa (Loss of function)
STRUCTURES MET IN DISSECTION
The Skin
STRUCTURES MET IN DISSECTION
Subcutaneous tissue or Hypodermis or Superfacial Fascia; Thickness of superficial fascia is different and varies with the amount of fat in it
STRUCTURES MET IN DISSECTION
Vessels: Arteries & Veins
arteries-thicker wall.red
veins-thinner wall.darker blue
STRUCTURES MET IN DISSECTION
Nerves: are whitish cords consisting of large numbers of exceedingly fine filaments of variable diameter, bound together in bundles by fibrous tissue. Nerves have considerable tensile strength & are capable of being stretched to a moderate degree without damage
STRUCTURES MET IN DISSECTION

Deep Fascia
A dense inelastic membrane, which separates the superficial fascia from the underlying structures and ensheathes the muscle
Prone Position
The body is lying horizontally with face downward
Supine Position
The face is upward and the body is lying horizontally