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117 Cards in this Set

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Long bone of upper arm
humerus
The long head of the biceps is located where in relation to the short
laterally
The spinal roots enter and exit
the spinal cord.
Spinal roots aid to
subdivide the spinal cord into its various segments.
The spinal roots join to form
spinal nerves.
The sensory fibers of the spinal nerves supply
segmental areas of the skin which are called dermatomes.
area of skin supplied by a spinal nerve is referred to as a
"dermatome".
Dermatomes are very important in the
diagnosis and location of damage to the spinal cord.
Sensory loss in certain dermatomes may indicate
pathology to a particular level in the spinal cord.Note: There is slight overlap of dermatomes. Hence
Upper limb consists of what two things?
limb girdle (pectoral girdle) and free limb
Limb girdle in relation to axial skeleton
-Scapula (posterior)
-Sternoclavicular joint (sole joint between the upper limb and the axial skeleton)
-Associated muscles
None
What makes up the Limb Girdle
Clavicle, Scapula, Sternoclavicular joint, associated muscles
None
Free Limb (three segments)
-Arm, forearm, hand
None
Upper limb structures are supplied by the
ventral primary rami of the spinal nerves.
Upper limb develops from the
upper limb bud.
Upper limb is an extension of
cervical myotome, which is well indicated by the dermatome interruption in the anterior chest wall.
process
a bony prominence
spine
a sharp, slender projection
condyle
a rounded prominence, usually found at the point of articulation with an adjacent bone.
tubercle
a small, rounded process
tuberosity
a large, rounded process
trochanter
a large process for attachment of muscles,e.g.the trochanter of the femur
trochlea
a process shaped like a pulley
crest
a narrow ridge of bone
line
a less prominent ridge of bone than a crest
head
a terminal enlargement
fossa
a depression or cavity in or on a bone
fissure
a narrow slit, often between two bones
foramen
an orifice or hole through which blood vessels, nerves, and ligaments may pass
meatus or canal
a long, tubelike passage
sinus or antrum
a cavity within a bone
sulcus
a furrow or groove
Hypaxial
ventral side
Epaxial
dorsal side
Coracoid process
Crow's beak
Acromion
Summit of arm
Glenoid cavity articulates with
head of humerus
Surgical neck
most vulnerable portion for fracture
Greater tubercle is located
laterally on the head of humerus
lesser tubercle is located
medially on the head of the humerous
Deltoid tuberosity is located
middle of humerus and is where deltoid is attached
Radius is on the
thumb side
Ulna is on the
pinki side
What muscle connectes to radial tuberosity
bicep
Styloid process
ponted structers located on the ulna and radius close to wrist.
Trochlear notch is located on the
Ulna
What muscle connects to the Ulnar tuberosity
brachialis
Interosseous membrane is located
between the ulna and radius
Carpal bones located at
base of hand
Metacarpal bones connect
proximal bones to carpal bones
proximal, middle, distal are terms used to describe the
phalanges
Trapezius muscle
cap of catholic priest diamond shape
PLT region (found in the intertubercular groove of humerus)
pectoral, latimus dorsi, terres major
None
shoulder muscle
deltoid muscle
Pectoralis minor
below pectoralis major
pectoralis minor origin
3, 4, 5, ribs
Pectoralis minor insertion
coracoid process
subclavius muscle
below clavical attached along bottom of clavical
None
serratus anterior origin
wraps around ribs 1-9 to abducts the scapula
Trapezius muscle origin
spinus processes
Trap insertion
spine of scapula
Latissimus dorsi origin
iliac crest, spinous processes of vertebre
Latissimus dorsi insertion
floor of intertubercular groove of humerus...adducts arm toward body
Spinal nervs form a
plexus
Deltoid origin
scapula & clavicle
Deltoid insertion
deltoid tuberosity of the humerus
Deltoid Fibers from the clavicle are responsible for
flexion
Deltoid fibers from the spine of the scapula are responsible for
extension
When deltoid abducts what are the antagonists
pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi
Biceps Brachii origin from the
scapula by means of two heads
Biceps Brachii insertion
on the radius and some toubh connective tissue of the forearm
Biceps Brachii action at elbow
brings about flexion and supination of the forearm
Biceps Brachii action at shoulder
brings aboutflexion of the arm.
Triceps Brachii origin
three heads, which serve as its origin
Triceps Brachii inserts
into the olecranon process of the ulna
Triceps Brachii action
to extend the arm
Triceps Brachii IOA of long head
extends the arm, since it takes origin from the scapula and spans the shoulder joint.
Brachialis origin
anterior surface of the humerus via a fleshy attachment and two sheets of connective tissue extending from the sides of the bone
Brachialis insertion
is onto the coronoid process of the ulna
Brachialis action
this muscle works across the elbow joint and upon contraction, it brings about flexion around the elbow joint
Brachialis antagonist
the triceps brachii muscle
Flexors of the forearm origin
medial epicondyle (and vicinity) of the humerus
Flexors of the forearm action
Some of these muscles bring about flexion of the hand
Extensors of the forearm origin
lateral epicondyle (and vicinity). therefore laterally and posteriorly located
Extensors of teh forearm action
bring about extension of the wrist and fingers.
Brachioradialis origin
ridge above the lateral epicondyle, higher than any other muscles of the extensor group
Brachioradialis insertion
onto the distal end of the radius
Brachioradialis action
at the elbow by flexing the forearm
thenar eminence
fleshy elevation that contain the short elevations of the thumb
hypothenar eminence
fleshy elevation that contain the short elevations of the little finger
interossei
other fingers have small muscles. insert onto the base of the proximal phalanx
interossei action
bring about adduction or abduction of the fingers
How many interossei
7
Interossei orgin
shafts of the metacarpi
interossei insertion
onto the base of the proximal phalanx
lumbricals
four small muscels, one for each finger except the thumb
lumbricals origin
tendons of the deep flexors of the fingers
lumbricals insertion
base of the proximal phalanges
Dorsal rami of spinal nerves supply structures
in the dorsal aspect of the body
Nerve plexus
formed by the network of nerves
ventral rami of the spinal nerves tend to
join each other and then split again thus forming a nerve plexus
plexus assocaited with the cervical region called the
cervical plexus
other plexi include
brachial plexus, lumbar plexus, and sacral plexus
lumbar plexus, and sacral plexus are usually referred to as a single nerve plexus called the
lumbosacral plexus
ramus
major branch of a nerve
brachial plexus supplies the entire nerve supply for the
upper limb
brachial plexus is formed by the
the anterior (ventral) rami of C5 - T1
brachial plexus course
extends inferiorly and laterally to pass over the 1st rib and posterior to the middle third of the clavicle to enter the axilla.
radial nerve innervates
innervates all mm. on the posterior surface of the arm and forearm - these are all extensors and the brachioradialis m.
None
axillary nerve innervates
innervates deltoid and teres minor mm
Musculocutaneous nerve innervates
biceps, brachialis and coracobrachialis mm.
Musculocutaneous nerve becomes the
cutaneous n. after innervating those mm
Median nerve innervates
most mm. in the anterior forearm
Median nerve acts on
5 mm. in hand controlling motion of the thumb and digits 2 and 3
Ulnar nerve innervates
1 1/2 muscles (flexors) in forearm
Ulnar nerve acts on
all mm. in hand except those innervated by the median n.
Ulnar n. and median n. collectively innervate
all muscles in the anterior forearm and entire hand