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98 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
intrinsic class conflict
resentment of poor of the rich, animosity has always been built in (continual)
contingent class conflict
conflict depended on circumstances
the ancestral constitution and the thirty
30 men appointed to review laws so they could reinstate old constitution
-could change laws
- decided who had citizenship
Pizaneus vs. Lysander
-Lysander loved the 30 and fully supported them
- Pizaneus wanted to ditch 30 and come up with some reconciliation with democrats
Xenophon account of the 30
- was in cavalry under 30
-accounts 1st hand and maybe written on the spot
- made strong opposition to brutality
-emphasis on divisions within the oligarchy
- was good idea gone bad
might have gone better with different people
good oligarch killed by Kritias
bad oligarch who killed Theramenes
The Melian Dialogue
-written by Thucydides
- takes place before silican expedition
- Athens was arrogant and tried to take over cities even though in peace with Sparta
- dialogue is believed never to have actually occurred
Realist view of international relations (Thucydides)
1. uncertain future
2. "morality" & "justice" as smoke screens
3. actions based on political/economic pressures
4. calculations of self-interest
- no such thing as just war
Melian arguments
- "fair play" & "just dealings" are honored positions
- what is there to gain?
- neutrality isn't hostility
- we have hope in perseverence
- we trust in the gods
Athenian arguments
-past deeds are irrelevant
- losing subjects is more frightening
- security for both is to be gained
- hope is naive and causes bad actions
- the gods always favor the strong
- sparta looks out for itself and defines its own morality
- will not help
women menarchy and life expectancy
- not very good nutrition
- menarchy-> delay of menstruation (17 yrs)
- life expectancy was 25 yrs
- if made it to 17 would probably make it to 37-40
- had 5-6 live births
arranged marriages/ dowry
- property went "through" women, but they never owned any
- women never asked what they wanted
- arrangement between father and man
- economic consideration
> class movement
- dowry: woman comes with money (inheritance)
> kept in family ideally ( cousins, uncles and nieces)
women's contracts
-limit to size
- 1 bushel of grain
- finances arranged so women could never be on own
-"Greek female heiress"
- didn't want woman to come into situation where own property
- if family dies
- if father dies, uncle has right to marry, or to father's family
> keeps dowry in family
> wives don't inherit
female desire/ misogamy
-fidelity important to bear legitimate children
- women prone to leading astray
- misogamy about women being unfaithful
- need to be guarded very carefully
women seclusion/silence
- women kept inside to be guarded
- women out in public is suspect
- woman's name never used in public
- should not have reputation
positive reciprocity
1. voluntary but not altruistic
2. exchange is imprecise
3. spread over time
4. establishes a relationship
- friends who exchange gifts
- mutual gift giving
- crucial to establishing relationships
Athens banking system
-"invisible wealth"
- in Athens, if taken to trial, make point of how much gave to city
- bank gives loans and makes deposits
- invisible to government
- no restrictions
- hiding your wealth
Negative reciprocity
"feuding society"
1. revenge today
2. much more important in absence of central authority
3. obligation for insults
- as authority gets more powerful became less and less important
features of Athenian law
1. amateur juries and no judges
2. little documentation
> hard to establish facts
3. standards of relevance
> sides slam each other
4. laws are not comprehensive
Classical Athens
1. carrying weapons considered primitive
2. feuds but through courts
3. also an ideal of restraint
> revenge good, but through courts
- chases eromenos
- ideal is around 14 yrs
- when beard just beginning to grow
- if have full beard> too old
good love
youth looking to be taught, educational relationship, older man supposed to be interested in the beauty of the soul
bad love
youth seeks money from relationship, older man not supposed to be interested in physical beauty or satisfying his lust
bisexuality of desires
-assumed men would have wife and children
- may have mistress also
Dover- Foucault model
1. The construction of sexuality rather than nature
2. judgments based on the "penetration code" rather than gender
> "better to give than to receive"
> who does penetrating and who had higher social status
3. shallow and restricted judgments
> not based on sexual orientation
Plato's condemnation
- only sex for procreation is good
- not into pleasures of the body
Aristocrats and farmers (homosexuality)
- aristocratic practice
- heterosexual relation predominant (mostly farmers)
- more entertainment for aristocrats (don't work as much)
- most insulting thing to say
- today = "faggot"
insult meaning "wide assed"
system where people are treated as property
- can be sold
- but can also be oppressed without being a slave
natal alienation
- cut off from their birth
- slaves alienated from rights
- family ties not acknowledged
"bought barbarians"
- most common way Greeks obtained slaves
- people already enslaved and sold
- captured in other wars
- parents sold children
sex ratio of slaves
- more men slaves than female slaves
- don't reproduce
- import only male slaves
- no self-sustaining slave popn
slaves' place in society
-domestic service
- mines
- prostitution
Plato's apology
-defense speech of Socrates
- Socrates not sorry at all
- ancient meaning = speech in defense
Socrates mission and enemies
- made enemies because he showed other men they weren't wise
> embarassed them
- he was a modest man
> "the only thing he knows is that he doesn't know"
Socrates bravery and defiance
- not sorry for what he did in past and will continue what he is doing
- served in army
- philosophy was divine right
- coming to Athens and speaking philosophy best thing for Athens
- found guilty and death sentence
- friends proposed to pay fine
Athenian view
- extremely important for them to have free speech
- hardly ever put intellectuals to death because they believed in free speech
-put Socrates to death
> didn't have popular following
> members of 30 gave him bad name
Socrates and the Sophists
- he was very opposed to the Sophists
- argued against them
- against rhetoric
- against arguing for bad side with clever arguments
Socrates' Traditional values and religion
- attacked or didn't believe in traditional values of Athens
- religious attacks (scientific and opposing view)
> most intellectuals concerned with meterolgy and astronomy
> didn't have purified idea of greek gods
- attacked conventional views
Socrates Connection with the 30
- had two followers who were members of the 30
- connected with them, couldn't be tried for being follower (amnesty)
- people suspicious of him
Socrates criticism of democracy
- philosophy hostile to democracy
- thought democracy not a good idea
- favors the one or few who know what's best over hundreds or thousands who don't know
Overview of the 4th century
- "eclipse of the leading states" (Sparta, Athens and Thebes)
- Rise of Macedonia
> leading states fail in taking over Greece and Macedonia rises
- end of Classical period 388
Panhellenism and modern nationalism : "squabbling city-states"
- all were greeks and should stop fighting each other
- should unite and invade Persia
- if people have one language should have one nation
- failure as a view
- greeks at time didn't feel the same way
- fought a lot of wars
unity without hierarchy difficult
- couldn't unite without hierarchy being involved
- have Athenian states and then allies
- hard to have big alliance without a leader
> potential for abusiveness
- not interested in exchanging citizenship
balancing behavior
- prevented any other state from gaining too much power
- "band wagon"> join with those who have most power
> form alliances to check power of one state but not growing too powerful themselves
- bigger states were the ones who balanced
The King's Peace
- peace treaty
- ends war between Sparta and coalition of Athens, Thebes, Corinth and Argos
- balancing behavior
- imposed by the Persian king
> financial backers
Ideals of "common peace"
- universal peace, no time limit, state autonomy
-peace within all the Greek world forever (if nothing goes wrong)
- peace should be the normal state of affairs
all states need to be independent
the king's peace and Sparta
- abused by sparta
- autonomy didn't mean or include those involved in teh Peloponnesian league
- remained "alliance" because sparta didn't get involved in politics or impose tributes> but begin to
> put spartan government in effect in thebes
- were states or people who went to Persian side
> persians referred to as Medes
- cowland > Boetia
> boetians thought of as simple-minded hicks, but good soldiers
- Thebens called medizers from cowland
- ended war- destroyed Spartan domination
- Thebans killed spartan king
- athens reunited with thebes to overthrow sparta
-liberated by thebes
- was place of spartan rule
- sparta never as powerful
Athenian League
- set up so athenians couldn't abuse power
- in league with Thebes against sparta
- in harmony with king's peace
- fianl end in 338
- 50 small cities stayed
- disbanded by battle
guarantees and representation of the athenian league
- assembly of allies put on equal power
- would lead to unity and harmony
- 70 states
social war
- some allies revolt from league
- was seen as start of athenian empire
- athenians defeated by allies
Macedonia kingdom
-independent aristocrats
- hereditary
- variation of power
> 40 yrs power, 40 yrs not
- king> if liked by aristocrats, they would follow him and he could rule over a lot of land becoming more powerful
long-standing problems in Macedonia
-assassinations, succession , foreign interference
- kings had multiple wives and kids
> confusion over who inherited throne
- made rich target for other countries
humiliation of athens
- loss of league allies
- destruction of olynthus
- peace of philocrates and abandonment of Phocis
>athens made separate peace
> peace fell through
- alliance with thebes(athens)
-defeat in battle> philip won
- hellenic league
"Hellenic League"
- greek states not going to fight each other
> sparta not included
-stacked by philip
> states have macedonian government
- philip's device to conquer persia
Demosthenes' speech:
"on the crown"
- only one to know future
- he knew what they had to do to beat macedonia
- athenians found him innocent
- did the best they could
-philip's son
- most famous for his conquests
- "the Great"
- morals were criticized
- hostility with macedonian democracy
- started wars for no reason
- very brutal
- wanted the world
system of taxation by persia
- greece actually richer
- persians cash cow for king
- not flexible about paying taxes
>collected yearly
- individuals not rich
persian weakness
- couldn't stand against hoplites
- did have a cavalry
- after greece conquered, recruited soldiers as mercenaries against Alexander
Persian strengths
1. numbers> outnumbered enemy
2. money > bribes, hire soldiers
3. organization
>satraps hereditary
4. size> ginormous kingdom
> in 10 yrs, troops marched 20, 000 miles
Defeat of Darius
- land based strategy
>disbanded navy
>alexander took ports
three battles: Granicus, issus, gaugamela
- first attacked right away
- second two> faces persian king
- alex almost died in one
- granicus won after conquering egypt
- each one won in one day
Bactria and Sogidana
- popular resistance and brutality
- thought people of country were pacified
- they revolted and killed garrison
- alex burned everything, destroyed all food sources
- took entire population as slaves
indian campaign
- victory but soldiers' refusal
- soldiers forced him to turn back> mutinied
problems with alexander
- adopting persian customs, troops
- proskynesis "kissing towards"
> made everyone greet this way
- more towards absolute monarchy
- deification
> believed he was son of zeus; thought he was a god
- constraints because of administration
> couldn't govern everything himself but wouldn't share power
Darius' preparations in the battle of issus
- defending river bank
-greek mercenaries in center
- large cavalry force on right
- units in hills on left
Alexander's advance in the battle of issus
- orderly and professional
- phalanx in center
- cavalry on wings
- oblique attack/ "hammer and anvil"
- the retreat
fifty years of civil wars among alexander's generals resulted in:
1. the division of conquests in several large kingdoms ruled by a greek/macedonian elite and exploitative of the native populations
2. mostly macedonian dominated oligarchies in the old greek city states such as athens
two cultural phenomena important
1. a mainly homogenous greek culture in the hellenistic kingdoms with little assimilation of native culture
2. a shift in cultural focus from politics (and citizens) to the individual, the family (and non-citizens)
political and social changes
1. loss of political rights
2. loss of community
3. focus changes
4. caveats
focus changes
in: individuals and families
out: cosmopolitanism or common
-"let him beware"
- timing not precise
- contrasts overdone
- people more likely to be apolitical than before
- unrealistic to say that everything changed at change of period
> things didn't happen overnight
hellenistic poetry
- less popular and public
- choregia by rich for people
> taxed for performances
- intellectual sponsored by the king
> the mueseum
- poets don't need to appeal to everyone
-more personal poetry
-"slim poetry" > more precise and concise
- ideas more obscured; deeper meaning
- more intellectual
- way of reinstating or telling who was cultured and who was not
- poetics of social distinction
- retreat to pastoral
- sung leisurely and openly in serene settings while herding
- appealing because it's a retreat from reality
unifying themes
1. individual focus
2. cosmopolitanism
> consider oneself citizen of the world
> focus on being good person in world
- negative aim "ataraxia"
>"lack of disturbance"
> not so ambitious
> more aim for peace and queit inside of self
>tranquility and independence
- someone who's into good pleasure
- unambitious hedonism
> more relaxed
> love is no good
> only use sex when it doesn't upset digestion, but is ok
> live without being noticed
-soothing materialism
>everything made from atoms and void
> ok to be dead, don't exist, just like before born
- doesn't believe that people are trying to improve the world
- rejection of convention
- simple nature
- critical of convention of society
- very cosmopolitan
- do everything in public
- live like animal, nature
-don't need wealth but poverty goes against nature
- only really need food and sex, but wish could get rid of hunger by rubbing stomach
-socrates and aristotle
- virtue and serenity
- means attaining calm attitude in times of adversity
- continue living in world but all that matters is the soul
-stuck in world can't control, but can control self
- social nature
-role in nature, like role in play
- conventional
- the notion that you can't be certain about anything
- the peace of uncertainity
- can't come up with conclusions
- "how do we know we're not in a dream"
- difficult to decide how to live
- don't know what's good or bad, what is or isn't
astronomical materialism
claim that heavenly bodies are not divine, but just physical matter
nomos/phusis arguments
criticisms of convention based on nature
socrates on the tyrant
-soul suffers from actions
- suffer from doing injustice, not enduring it
socratic skepticism
- dialogues that don't have firm conclusions
- show what's wrong, but doesn't have positive/alternate view
sophistic skepticism
nothing exists, if it does exist we don't know about it, if we know about it we can't communicate it
What distinctive signs of Greek culture were found on the northern borders of Afghanistan?What in addition to the distance from Greece makes this remarkable?
A pillar inscribed with a list of 140 moral maxims. this is remarkable because they were copied from a similar pillar which stood near the shrine of Apollo at Delphi, over 3,000 miles away.
What factors made Hellenistic culture relatviely homogenous across such a vast area? (3)
1.use of Greek language> koine
2. growth in the number of colonists
3. gymnasiums
What distinctive signs of Greek culture were found on the northern borders of Afghanistan?What in addition to the distance from Greece makes this remarkable?
A pillar inscribed with a list of 140 moral maxims. this is remarkable because they were copied from a similar pillar which stood near the shrine of Apollo at Delphi, over 3,000 miles away. remarkable because when he went to area the people were ready to be lectured and learn about the Delphic oracle