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23 Cards in this Set

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Istantaneous present (aoristic or punctiliar present)--a subcategory of the narrow band present
used to indicate that an action is completed at the moment of speaking. It only occurs in the indicative mood.
Progressive Present (Descriptive Present)--a sub-category of narrow band present
used to describe a scene in progress, especially in narrative lit.
Iterative Present--a sub-category of broad band present
used to describe an event that repeatedly happens. It is frequently used in the imperative mood.
Customary (habitual or General) Present--a sub-category of broad band present
used to signal either an action that regurlarly occurs or an ongoing state. The action is usually iterative, or repeated, but not without interruption. The difference between the customary and iterative is mild.
Gnomic present--a sub-category of broad band present
used to make a staement of a general, timeless fact. It does not say something is happening, but that something does happen. It's used in proverbial statements or general maxims about what occurs all times.
Historical Present
used fairly frequently in narrative lit to describe a past event.
Futuristic Present
used to describe a futuristic present. It typically adds the connotations of immediacy and certainty. Key to identification: is soon going to do
Instantaneous Imperfect (aoristic or punctiliar)--a sub-category of narrow-band
rarely used just like the aorist to indicate simple past. This usage is restricted to elegen in narrative lit.
Progressive (Descriptive) Imperfect-- a sub-category of narrow-band
often used to describe an action or state that is in progress in past time from the viewpoint of the speaker. It's broader than the instantaneous imperfect, but more narrow than that of the customary imperfect. Key to ind: was (continually) doing.
Ingressive (inchoative, inceptive) Imperfect--a sub-category of narrow-band
often used to stress the beginning of an action, with the implication that it continued for some time. Key to identification: began doing
Iterative imperfect--a sub-category of broad-band.
used for repeated action in past time. it is similiar to the customary imperfect, but it is not something that regularly occurs. Key to Identification: kept on doing.
Customary (habitual or general) Imperfect
used to indicate a regularly recurring activity in past timeor a state that continued for some time (general). Key to identification: customarily, habitually, continually
Imperfect Retained in Indirect Discourse
Like the present, the imperfect can be retained from direct discourse in the indirect. In English, however, we translate it as though it were a past perfect.
Indirect Discourse
occurs after a verb of perception (e.g., verbs of saying, thinking, believing, knowing, seeing, hearing). It may be introduced a declaritive oti, legon, eipen, etc.
Constative (Complexive, Punctiliar, Comprehensive, Global) Aorist
views the action as a whole, taking no interest in the internal workings of the action. it describes the action in summary fashion, without focusing on the beginning or end.
Ingressive (Inceptive, Inchoative) Aorist
used to stress the beginning of an action or the entrance into a state. Key to identification: began to do
Consumative (Culminative, Ecbatic, Effective) Aorist
used to stress the cessation of an act or state.
Epistolary Aorist
used to describe self-conciously the letter from the time frame of the audience.
Predictive Future
used to indicate that something will take place or come to pass. The potrayal is external, summarizing the action: "it will happen." This use is the most used of the future tense.
Imperitival Future
used for a command, almost always in OT quotations (due to a literal translation of the Hebrew). However, it was used in this manner even in classical Greek, though sparingly. Outside of Matthew, this usage is not common.
Deliberative Future
used to ask the question that implies some doubt about the response.
Intensive Perfect (Resultative Perfect)
used to emphasize the results or present state produced by a past action. The English present often is the best translation. This is a common use of the perfect. Stative verbs are especially used for this.
Extensive Perfect (Consummative Perfect)
used to emphasize the completed action of a past action or process from which a present state emerges. It should be normally translated in English as a present perfect.