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99 Cards in this Set

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Wrong Argument
Represented by Socratese represents all that is wrong with sophistry and "new education" it emphasises the use of trickers, persuasion, and retoric. Disrespect for elders and no regard for moral values or the gods
from The Clouds
Right Argument
represents the old or traditional syste of education, one that stresses obedience, reverence for elders, values indoctrinated in poetry such as Homer, and physical fitness
from The Clouds
Strepsiades
penny-pinching father of Pheidippides; represents the "old way"; wants to be taught sophistry by Socrates in order to shrink his debt rather than take responsibility for it;cannot learn from Socrates b/c of his stubborness, violence, and limited/literal mind; although he uses sophistry to shrink his debt he is a traditionalist an (like a tragic hero) regrets his actions when Pheidippides uses his sohpistry against him
from The Clouds
Pheidippides
Strepsiades' play-boy son; he is arrogant and aristocratic;he is full of himself-originally in his possesions and later in his sophistic knowledge he represents the "new way" as he is very receptive to Socrates' teachings; he becomes the perfect exaple of a Sophist usings his knowledge to justify the beating of his own father
from The Clouds
Socrates
Runs the thinkery; comedic representation of sophistic movements (intellectual corruption or fraud); the foild to strepsiades; represents intelect that seems to be removed from the physical all together; so "intellectual" or rather non-practical he seems to be studying nonsense; is a dangerous threat by using his sophistry to teach the younger generations to grousley disrespect the gods and elders; is araogant and violent
from The Clouds
Chorus of Clouds
Socrates describes the clouds as the goddesses of "prophets...quacks,fops, charlatands,faires..." They cause the weather and are the goddesses of the philosopher; it is The Clouds whom Socrates and his followers praise not the traditional gods
from The Clouds
Xanthius
Strepsiades household slave; obedient but will stand up for himself; helps Strepsiades burn down The Thinkery
from The Clouds
Philosophy
Represents the "Old Education"; the 3 D's: Decorum, Dicsipline, and Duty;rigid, physical, manly; decency, modesy, purity;defines Sophistry as vain, villiany,sodomists, perversion;cannot compete with Sophistry's rhetoric and loses the completition
from The Clouds
Sophistry
uses rhetoric and persuasion to make the worse argument appear to be the truth;large emphasis on gaining profit; embraces pleasure and critisizes philosphy for depriving it;disproves all of Philosophy's values and takes Pheidippides as a students
from The Clouds
Pasias
first creditor of Strepsiades;confident, assured, and organizes; Strepsiades refuses to repay him b/c he finds Pasias to be ignorant; still Pasias intends to pursure his payment
from The Clouds
Amynias
second creditor of Strepsiades; a whinings and self-pitying man; suggests that Strepsiades pay interest on loan but he responds that if oceans can't grow then money can't either; is whipped by Strepsiades until he runs away
The Clouds
Chaerphon
A follower of Socrates renowned for his paleness and knowledge;whiney and helpless
The Clouds
The Thinkery
the school for sophists lead by Socrates;represents what Aristophanes thinks a school should NOT be - overly serious (to the point of ridiculousness) and seperated from the natural world
The Clouds
New Comedy
ancestor to modern citcom; not political or socail; personal/family subject; more accessible to modern reader; universal subject matter
Old comedy
Socially relevant;little use of mythology;leather phallus;impossible situations;no boundaries; BUT NOT TRIVIAL;serious/important issues;political/social issues

ex. The Clouds-education; sophistry vs. philosogy
ex. Lysistrata- war and relationship b/t the sexes
Lysistrata
Athenian woman who is sick of the war going on between Athens and Sparta; she decides to attempt to bring the war to an end by convincing the Athenian and Spartan women to abstain from sex with their husbands until Sparta and Athens declare peace
From Lysistrata
Kleonike
Klenoike is a foolish and shallow Athenian woman; she is the "girly-girl" of the bunch;while Lysistrata is concerned about establishing peace Kleonike seems to be more concerned with the fact that her scheme involves sexy negligees
From Lysistrata
Myrrhine
Second strongest woman in the play;most effective in the sex strike as the coy seduction of her husband (Kinesias) leads him to go to the Akropolis begging that Athens and Sparta make peace
From Lysistrata
Lampito
Lampito is the representative of the Spartan women; she works closely with Lysistrata to get the Spartan women involved in the sex strike; she is loud, boustrous, and somewhat stupid
From Lysistrata
Chorus of Old Men
Made up of 12 old men;they travel all along Athens trying to keep the women in line;they are unsuccessful and are badly beaten by the chorus of old women
From Lysistrata
Chorus of Old Women
Seizes the Akropolis and protects it from the Chorus of Old Men by outwitting them and fighting them of with house hold objects;in the end they win victory over the chorus of old men
From Lysistrata
Commissioner of Public Saftey
the head of security and law in Athens yet is completely overwhelmed by the women and dresses as one for protection; when Lysistrata tries to discuss peace between Sparta and Athens he is confused by her logic
from Lysistrata
Kinesias
The sexualy deprived husband of Myrrhine; he is the first to give into the sex strike and goes to the Akropolis to discuss peace between Sparta and Athens; he is distracted however by his longing for Peace
from Lysistrata
Peace
Lysistrata's handmaid; Lysistrata brings her, completely naked, to the Akropolis as a final plea for Peace; her nakedness arouses the men so much that they quickly discuss the terms of the truce so that the sex strike will be over
from Lysistrata
Lysios
Dionysus as the loosener of boundaries and the god of the irrational
The Bacchae
Omaphagia
to eat raw flesh with joy; seen in The Bacchae in the Maenads;
The Bacchae
sparagmas
the ritual slaughter of animal by rearing in apart; this is seen in The Bacchae in the Maenads; Agaue believes she is doing this when she kills Pentheus (thinking he is a lion)
The Bacchae
Maenads
Theban women possessed by Dionysus for refusing to regard him as a god; they left their homes and civic duty to live an almost animalistic life in the wilderness; through their trance they worship, sing, dance for Dionysus; they live a calm and easy life but are frightening, strong, and violent when they are threatoned
The Bacchae
Bacchae
Dionysus' tribe of woman followers; regard Dionysus as frightening, violent, righteous, and compassionate
The Bacchae
Amathia
lack of wisdom; ignorant of self; represented in Pentheus in THe Bacchae as he does realize that Dionysus is a god; represented in Agaue as well as she does not know she killed her own son
The Bacchae
Sophia
Wisdom or self knowledge; represented by Dionysus in The Bacchae through his knowledge of his divinity and identity; However,in Nichomachean ethics sophia relates to wisdom which excludes prudence and can only be gained through study
The Bacchae and Nicomachean Ethics
"Follow, and I shall go as your escort and protector, though another shall bring you back"
Dionysus speaking to Pentheus in The Bacchae; he is talking about taking Pentheus to see the Maenads; this is ironic because Dionysus does not intend to protect Penthius-he is bringing him to his demise; when her refers to another bringing PEnthius back he is talking about Agaue; he does not mention that she will rip him apart and "carry" his head back
NO HINT FOR YOU...figure it out
Dionysus
The god of the irrational and loosener of boundaries, wine, theater and ecstacy; he is the son of Zues and Semele, grandson of Cadmus; in The Bacchae he is infuriated that he does not recieve the reverence that he deserves as a god so he violently punishes Thebes for their impious behavoir; represents duality: mortan and divine, allows mortals to let go of moderation and join in revelry(joy happiness) but this reverly causes them to go mad, be violent, and self destruct
The Bacchae
Pentheus
Son of Agaue and grandson of Cadmus; the new king of Thebes;the foil of Dionysus:preserves law and order, military man, stern, puritanical, and objects to revelry (drunkeness, sexuality, ect.); but like Dionysus, represents duality while his puritanical and obsinate her is also very curious about the Maenads;wants sole rule over Thebes(especially woman); wanst a rational government
The Bacchae
Teiresias
A famous Theban seer; convinces Cadmus to worship Dionysus(he and Cadmus are the only men to go to worship Dionysus with the Maenads); tries to convince Pentheus to worship with them; very concerned with showing Dionysus "the right respect"
The Bacchae
Cadmus
Former king of Thebes;father of Agaue and Semele; grandfather of Pentheus and Dionysus; only one in his family to declare allegence to Dionysus-he (along with Teiresias) goes to worship Dionysus with The Maenads and tries to convine Pentheus to revere him as a god aswell;he is still punished and Dionysus transforms him into a snake and drives him to destroy many cities
The Bacchae
Agaue
Mother of Pentheus and daughter of Cadmus;Dionysus punishes her for not revering him as a god by putting her under a trance-causing her to be part of the Maenads; she suffers from amathia when she kills Pentheus thinking he is a lion; Dionysus punishes her for her impious action by exiling her
The Bacchae
The parts of the soul
the rational part and the non-rational part
Nicomachean Ethics
rational part of the soul deals with...
what does not change (to epistemonikon)

another part deals with what changes (to logistikon)
Nicomachean Ethics
what does not change deals with...
Understanding (nous)
and
Science (episteme)
Nicomachean Ethics
science
episteme; the way things are understood through induction (requires previous knowledge) or deduction; scientific method
Nicomachean Ethics
understanding
understands what is turth; grasps as a principle
Nicomachean Ethics
what changes deal with...
craft (techne) and prudence (phronesis)
Nicochean Ethics
craft
(techne);yeilds production; admits to being otherwise because principle is found in fina product not in producer
Nicomachean Ethics
prudence
(phronesis); yeilds action; requires fine deliberation about what promotes living well in general for all human beings; knowing what is best for the advancement of self; requires the blending of moral and intelectual thought
Nicomachean Ethics
dileberation
can only dileberate about what admits to change (craft and prudence) not about what cannot change (understanding and science)
Nicomachean Ethics
charecter
(ethos) is defined by ones prudence
Nicomachean Ethics
wisdom
the product of understanding (nous) and Science (episteme);is the right thind to do not because it is expedient; is most in accord with the right virtue; requires prudence
Nicomachean Ethics
Difference b/t prudence and virtue
prudane- makes us achieve the thing that promotes the end

Virtue- the action that makes us achieve the end
Nicomachean Ethics
3 kinds of knowledge
technical, practicle
Nicomachean Ethics
zoon politikon
"the political animal"; expresses the idean that man is a social being; expressis Aristotles' belief that no one choses to live with out friends
Nicomachean Ethics
arete
what is good for human kind; virtue and excellence
2 kinds
1) ethical 2) intelectual
Nicomachean Ethics
ethical/moral virtue
the mean or middle between the excessive vice and the defiecient vice
Nicomachean Ethics
3 possibilities for the happy life
1) pleasure (etone)
2) honor, responsibility, social recognition
3)contimplation (theoria)
Nicomachean Ethics
Spoudaios
the appropriate judge to determind what is virtue;is the model of appropriate behavoir
Nicomachean Ethics
eudaimonia
hapiness; virtue is not suffiecient for happiness must be lucky too
Nicomachean Ethics
summing up pleasure
1) many kinds of pleasure-no uniform theory
2)value of pleasure depends on the activity
3)pleasure is not the aim or the end(the end is what is aimed for-think action) but pleasure does complete the activity
4)pleasure is NOT the good
5)there are unhealthy and false pleasures
6)morally healthy person is judge of what is good or pleasureable
7)requirs education in what is virtous and what the right pleasures are
Nicomachean Ethics
Socratic method
technique used by Socrates and his followers; finding answer or defining by testing a hypotheses with argument and questioning
rhetoric
art of persuasion used by Socrates and his followers
parabasis
charecteristic features of old comedy; a long choral passsage both recited and sung directly adressing the audience representing view of the poet
ethus
the art of living well, "the good"
Nicomachean Ethics
philia
friendship
Nicolmachean Ethics
3 kinds of personal friendship
utility
pleasure
complete
Nicomachean Ethics
utility
according to Aristotle a type of friendship; only friends to gain "some good" from each other; based on material advantage; may even be unpleasant; only lasts as long as the need is present and is being fulfilled
Nicomachean Ethics
pleasure
according to aristotle a type of friendship;most prevelent among young people; friendship exists because the two gain pleasure from one and other; is quick to start and quick to end because people's feelings can change quickly
Nicolmachean Ethics
complete
according to aristotle a type of friendship; can only be had between good people; b/c good people are good for the sake of being good and wish the same for their friends; this results in friends pleasing one and other and giving good things to one another; is the most enduring b/c it has all qualities that friends must have (utility, pleasure, but only b/c good for the sake of being good)
Nicomachean Ethics
3 kinds of friendship in the community
best worst
1) kingship---------tyranny
2) aristocracy------oligarchy
3) timocracy--------democracy
(least of the bad)
Nicomachean Ethics
reasons for having friends
1)one who wishes good to his/her friends
2)one who wishes his friends to live [well]
3)one who [enjoys] spending time w/ his friends
4)friends make similar choices
5)one who shares friend's joys and sorrows
Nicomachean Ethics
polutropus
multi-faceted; seen in Odysseus in Philoctetes; hero loyal to country and manipulating villian in treetment of Philoctetes
Philoctetes
panouragos
doing everythin, both good and bad; ambiguity b/t doing what is right and compromise; doing WHATEVER it takes to get the job done; can be dangerous makes good men (Neoptalimus) too ambitious and cross boundries
Philoctetes
"if the goal is fine and praiseworthy, cleverness is good; if it is base, cleverness is unscroupulous"
the goal justifies the means; got to do what you got to do; possibly from Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics (IDK!)
NO HINT FOR YOU...figure it out!
Philoctetes
A Charecter in Sophocles' Philoctetes; recieved the bow and arrows (that cannot miss and kill on impact) from Hercules and a snake bite that will never heal from a mystical snake; abandoend by the Greek army on their way to Troy "for licking his wounds and flashing them around like decorations"; so bitter and angry with the Greek army that her refuses to help them win the Trojan War with his bow until Hercules himself tells him to forget the past
Philoctetes
Neoptolemus
a charecter from Sophocles' Philoctetes; son of Achilles; conflicted with the idea that in order to be loyal to Greece he must be manipulating and decietful in order to get Philoctetes' bow; lead by his moral scruples to be honest
Philoctetes
Hercules
the Machina of Philoctetes; convinces Philoctetes to forget the mistreatment he recieved from his fellow Greeks and to help them win the Trojan war
Philoctetes
Odysseus
in Philoctetes decietful and manipulating; holds the idea that one must do whatever it takes to get the job done whether it is right or wrong; tries to convince Neoptolemus that he has a lifetime left to do the right thing and lieing to Philoctetes is a once only act so its ok
Philoctetes
Asclepius
doctor in Troy who will heal Philoctetes' snake bite
Philoctetes
specialization
according to Socrates each citizen of the polis must perform a certain task that he is best suited for
The Republic
aristocracy
according to socrates in The Republic the best form of government; litterally means "rule of the best"; the just city is an aristocracy; does not mean that rule is hereditary but depends on which of the gaurdiands is best fit to rule
The Republic
timocracy
the form of government where life is concerned with gaining honor and social status; first of inferior forms of politeia; forms because children think that "good" behavoir is not good for the sake of being good (like in an aristocracy) but for the sake of reputation
The Republic
oligarchy
second of the inferior forms of government; literally means "the rule of the few" but is percieved as meanding "rule of the wealthy";form of government where citizens act in ways that will allow them to aquire wealth; values such things as hard work and thrift; good is not good for own sake or for the sake of honor but for the sake of aquiring wealth
The Republic
democracy
third of the inferior forms of government;"rule of the people"; acording to Plato "rule of ignorance" everyone is obsessed with equality but Plato says it is impossible because all people are not on the same level; leads to chaos because there is no supreme rule to keep order
The Republic
Tyranny
worst form of government;government by a dictator; forms because the chaos of democracy allows for one to step in and inforce only his beliefs in order to restore order;all are subordinate to one man who seeks to better self and not polis
The Republic
guardians
in Plato's Republic the best individuals to rule the polis; must go through extensive education and live in the public eye with no individual possession to corrupt them; they are the models for the polis and ensure that it remains in accordance with what allows for justice
The Republic
philosopfer king
according to plato a city can only be just if ruled by a king who is also as wise as a philosoper and "who loves the truth"
The Republic
Socrates
the leader of the republic believes that justice can only be found in his perfect city and can only come from doing the right thing; according to socrates the just are the happiest of all people
The Republic
Glaucon
a close friend to Socrates; his closest and most loyal deciple; he agrees, for the sake of argument to appose Socrates during the search for justice; represents conventional thought
The Republic
allegory of the cave
the prisoners represent the common man; the shaddows are the things which the common man percieve to be real (what society and ignorance of the true forms dictate to men to believe); the philosopher is he who is freed from the bonds of the common man and is dragged to the fire (although this is painful for him) he sees that everything he though was real was just a shadow of the true forms created by the light (or truth of the fire)
The Republic
analagy of the sun
until the philosopher leaves the cave and sees the sun he will have no understanding of the form of the good; the sun represents the good because it is hidden from the sight of the common man (emprissoned in the cave) and must take time to realize and adapt to; to the common,or ignorant man, the good may seem to be ridiculous just as one recovering from the blinding sun my apear to be blind; also he who sees the sun realizes that it is the cause of all around him just as the good is the greatest of all forms
The Republic
the line is divided...
into two equatl halves
1) the visible relm
2) inteligible relm
The Republic
visible relm
can be grasped with senses; the prisoners in the cave live in the visible relm
The Republic
intelegible relm
can only by grasped by the mind; is reached when one leave the cave and is exposed to daylight
The Republic
eikasia
lowest relm in the relm of the visible-the relm of imagination (the bound prisoners and the shadow)
The Republic
pistus
the second relm in the relm of the visible;relm of belief(when prisoner frees self from locks and views the statues)
The Republic
dianoia
relm of reasoning and math (can reason about forms but not in a purely abstract way)
The Republic
noesis
the final relm of understanding the form of the good can only be reached by the philosopher king; when man is finally able to see the sun
The Republic
Adeimantus
source of poetry and literature in the discussion of justice; declines Socrates offer to let him lead the debate; has trouble understading Socrates' idea about the narrative style
The Republic
Cephalus
the elderly father of Polermarchus; it is in his home that the dialog is held; Socrates respects his wisdome and age and asks him about the virtuous life; expresses idea that justice is paying ones debt
The Republic
Polemarchus
invites Socrates to his home in order to enjoy his teachings; respects the beliefs of his father and tries to defend them as best as possible; he explains that cephalus idea about justice being paying ones debts really means giving each man what he deserves; he accuses Socrates of being lazy and questioning everyone else rather then defineing his own ideas; this starts the search for justice
The Republic
Thrasymachus
A loud, rude, and stubborn man, explosivley interupts argument about what justice is but refuses to give his opinion w/o pay; he believes that justice is the interest of the stronger and designed by those in power
The Republic