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38 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Analogies - Build a bridge between stem words
when building a bridge, use the phrase "by definition"
Analogies - Recognize weak bridges
if the bridge only works with answer choices by adding words like "sometimes" "can" "usually" "seldom" "may" "may not" then it is WEAK. ELIMINATE IT.
Analogies - Adjust the bridge if necessary
It may need to be made more or less specific if no answer choices fit.
Analogies - Direction of analogy
the stem pair and answer choices must relate in the same order.

Make notes: "#1 by def, is a type of #2"
Analogies - Types of Classic Bridges
#1 Characteristic Bridge - where one word describes a characteristic quality of the other word.

#2 Lack Bridge - where one word describes a quality of the word lacks.

#3 Degree Bridge - one word is an extreme version of another.

#4 Type Bridge - one word is a type or example of another.

#5 Part/Whole - one word describes a part of element of the other word.

#6 Function Bridge - one word is used to describe the function of the other word.
Analogies - Hints
* Stem words are NEVER perfect synonyms. Ergo, synonyms in answer choices are ALWAYS WRONG. ELIMINATE THEM.

* If you have trouble building a bridge between stem words, you can still eliminate answer choices with weak bridges and make your best guess.

*Sometimes it is easier to build your bridge starting with the second stem word. Just remember your bridge order when plugging it into answer choices.

* Beware the "Both are" weak bridge. (ex. "necklace : bracelet)

*if you find it impossible to make a strong bridge between the stem words, you can still eliminate answer choices with weak bridges and then guess from the remaining choices.

*If you don't know the stem words, eliminate answer choices with no clear relationship
Sentence Completion - Types of clues
*Keywords, which are descriptive phrases that clue you in to the meaning of the missing word(s)

* Roadsigns (like "because"or "although" "yet" "however" etc.) which are connectors that tell you whether the missing word goes in the same or opposite direction from the clues you find elsewhere in the sentence.

*Predict the answer before you look at the answer choices, you won't be swayed by tempting wrong answers.
Sentence Completion - Kaplan Method for two-blank questions
1. Read the sentence, looking for clues.

2. decide which blank is easier to predict, and make a prediction for that blank

3. Eliminate choices that don't match your prediction for that blank.

4. Read the remaining choices into your sentence and decide which choice works for both blanks.
Sentence Completion - Detour Road Signs
Although
but
yet
however
nevertheless
despite
whereas
on the other hand
conversely
Sentence Completion - Straight Ahead Road Signs
because
since
and
as well as
similarly
in addition to
likewise
also
Sentence Completion - Hints
* Trust your ear - when you plug in an answer, read it in the sentence. if it sounds awkward, reconsider.

* ALWAYS work with the easier blank first in two-blank questions.
Antonyms - Stimulus/Response
When you see an antonym, define the stem word in your head and then predict its opposite.
Antonyms - Hints
* If an answer choice does not have a clear opposite, ELIMINATE IT!

* Check answers for part of speech if unclear.
Antonyms - If you do not recognize the stem word
1 Start making opposites of the choices.

2 Eliminate all answers without clear opposites

3 make your best guess from the remaining choices by asking yourself which opposite is most likely to be the meaning of the stem word.
Analogy Strategy - When you know both words in the stem pair
1 build a bridge using "by definition"

2 apply bridge to answer choices

3 use POE on scratch paper

4 if necessary, adjust bridge and reapply
Analogy Strategy - When you don't know one word in the stem pair
1 try to build a bridge with answer choices

2 eliminate answer choices which lack strong bridges or relationships

3 with the remaining choices, work backward and eliminate answer choices whose bridges don't work with the stem pair
Analogy Strategy - When you don't know either word in the stem pair
1 Try to make defining sentences with the answer choices

2 Eliminate nondefining relationships

3 Make an educated guess about which remaining answer choice has the strongest relationship
Sentence Completion Strategy - One Blank Question
1 Ignore answer choices

2 Come up with your own word for the blank (use roadsign words for clues)

3 use POE to eliminate answers that aren't similar to your word
Sentence Completion Strategy - Two Blank Question
1 Ignore answer choices

2 Come up with your own word for the blank (use roadsign words for clues)

3 Look only at one side of each of the answer choices and eliminate those that aren't similar to your word (use POE)

4 Come up with a word for the second blank

5 From the remaining answer choices, eliminate those that aren't similar to your word (use POE)
Sentence Completion Strategy - Relationship between blanks
1 Determine if the relationship is one of agreement or disagreement (use roadsigns)

2 Eliminate those answer choices in which the two words don't have the same relationship as the blanks
Sentence Completion Strategy - Text Completions
1 Set up your scratch paper

2 Ignore the answer choices

3 Read and summarize the passage

4 pick a blank to work on first and come up with a word for the blank (use the meaning of the passage as well as the roadsign words to help you)

5 Use POE to eliminate answers that aren't similar to your word

6 Rinse and repeat for the other blanks
Antonyms Strategy - When you know the stem word
1 define the word for yourself

2 come up with a simple opposite for the word

3 Use POE to eliminate answer choices that don't match your opposite
Antonyms Strategy - When you "sort of" know the stem word
* Put the stem word in a phrase that you recall, try to extrapolate its meaning.

1 Determine if the stem word is positive or negative (if either)

2 Eliminate those answer choices that do not have an opposite connotation

3 Make opposites for the answer choices

4 Eliminate answer choices whose opposites are close to the stem word
Antonyms Strategy - When you don't know the stem word at all
1 Eliminate any answer choices without opposites

2 Guess the extremes
Reading Comprehension Strategy - Basic Steps
1 Familiarize yourself with the passage, paying attention to the main idea and the structure

2 Read the question, find the lead words, and make sure you understand what it's asking

3 Use lead words and line references to find the relevant part of the passage

4 Read in detail about five lines above and five lines below the lead words

5 Answer the question in your own words

6 Use POE
Guidelines for Reading Critically
* Think about the passage as a whole while you are reading. Don't get lost in details.

*As you read, summarize each paragraph in your notes

* By the time you finish a passage, you should know the topic, scope, and purpose
Analytical Writing Section Notes
* The Issue Essay will always come first

* be CONCISE. Brevity is important on the GRE. This does not mean you should aim for elementary sentences. Instead, think actively about economy- avoid wordiness, redundancy, and needless qualification.

* be FORCEFUL. Forceful writing makes for a more impressive and effective essay. In particular, avoid unnecessary self-reference, passive voice, weak openings and clichés.
Analytical Writing - Organizing the issue the issue essay
* Paragraph 1 - RESTATE the issue. Agree or disagree

* Paragraph 2 - INTRODUCE a point of agreement or disagreement, depending on which side of the issue you chose, including relevant detailed support.

* Paragraph 3 - ADD a second point of agreement or disagreement, with relevant detailed support.

* Paragraph 4 - CONTINUE to bring in point of agreement or disagreement

* Paragraph 5 - ADDRESS an opposition to the side you chose and refute it with relevant detailed support.

* Paragraph 6 - CONCLUDE with a final statement about your stance on the issue.
Reading Comprehension Strategy - Types of questions
1 - Main idea - "the main (primary, chief) point of this passage is to..."

2 - Finding Specific Details - "According to the author..." "The author states all of the following EXCEPT..."

3 - Application to Other Situations - "which of the following statements would the author agree with?" "The author's argument would be weakened by the discovery of which of the following?"

5 - Tone/Attitude - "The Author's attitude toward the problem can best be described as..." "The author's tone in this passage is that of a person attempting to..."

6 - Technique - "Which of the following best describes the development of this passage?"
"In this passage, the author makes the central point primarily by ..."

7 - Determining the meaning of words from their context - "As it is used in the passage, the term... can best be described as..." "The phrase... is used in the passage to mean that.."
Reading Comprehension Strategy - Main Idea questions
* Be sure to check the opening and summary sentences of each paragraph

*If you cannot find the topic sentence, ask yourself these questions:

1 Who or what is this passage about?

2 What aspect of this subject is the author talking about?

3 What is the author trying to get across about this aspect of the subject?
Reading Comprehension Strategy - "Choose a title for the passage" questions
* Watch out for choices that are too specific or too broad

* A good title will express the thoughts of ALL paragraphs
Reading Comprehension Strategy - "Tone/Attitude" questions
When asked to determine questions of attitude, mood, or tone, look for words that convey emotion, express values, or paint pictures
Reading Comprehension Strategy - "Specific detail" questions
Sport key words in the question and scan the passage to find them (or their synonyms)

1 - Look for key words (nouns or verbs) in the answer choices

2 - Scroll through the passage, looking for those key words or their synonyms.

3 - When you find a key word or its synonym in a sentence, reread that sentence to make sure the test makers haven't use the original wording to mislead you.
Reading Comprehension Strategy - "Inference" questions
Base your answers on what the passage implies, not what it states directly.

* Look for a statement that is a logical development of the information that the author has provided.
Reading Comprehension Strategy - "Apply ideas to a new situation" questions
Put yourself in the author's place

1 - Reason - If X is true then Y must also be true.

2 - Perceive Feelings - If the author feels this way about subject A, he probably feels a certain way about subject B.

3 - Sense a Larger Structure - This passage is part of an argument for a proposal, or part of a description of a process, or part of a critique of a hypothesis.
Analytical Writing - GRE readers evaluative criteria
1 - Analysis of the statement's implications.

2 - Organization and articulation of your ideas.

3 - Use of relevant examples and arguments to support your case.

4 - Handling of the mechanics of standard written English.
Analytical Writing - 5 step approach to the ISSUE ESSAY
1 - Begin with brainstorming (2 mins) use scratch paper, write down ideas.

2 - Organize your outline (3 minutes) Write down your CLAIM (thesis), GROUNDS (stats, examples, anecdotes), and WARRANT (how the grounds justify the claim).

3 - Write the body of your essay (20 minutes) type up points, two-three sentences to flesh out the outline.

4 - Now write your opening and summary paragraphs (10 minutes) Write these to fit the body you've written

5 - Read and Revise (10 minutes)
Analytical Writing - 5 step approach to the ARGUMENT-ANALYSIS ESSAY
1 - Identify the Claims (2 minutes) use scratch paper, list them.

2 - Question the Claims (3 minutes) GROUNDS is there any evidence to support the claim (stats, examples, anecdotes), WARRANT does the evidence support the claim or COULD THERE BE OTHER FACTORS that cause the effect about which the author is writing? (how the grounds justify the claim).

3 - Write the body of your critique following the order of the claims made in the prompt (15 minutes) type up points, two-three sentences to flesh out the outline.

4 - Now write your opening and summary paragraphs (5 minutes) Write these to fit the body you've written

5 - Read and Revise (5 minutes)