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40 Cards in this Set

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Edward Titchener
Broke consciousness down into elements or specific mental structures

Sensations and thoughts are structures as well
Edward Hall
Studied proxemics, the measureable distance between people as they interacted
Aaron Beck
Cognitive therapy for depression that aims to replace negative or irrational thoughts with more reasonable, adaptive ones
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapist
Albert Bandura
Social learning theory that states we learn behavior through vicarious reinforcement
Julian Rotter
Internal/external loci of control
Trait Theorist
Erik Erickson
In a psychoanalytic and psychosocial framework, he expanded Freud's theories to cover entire lifespan
Ego Psychologist
John Garcia
The Garcia Effect states that different species have innate predispositions to learn different thing in different ways
Albert Ellis
Rational-emotive therapy states that irrational beliefs about self impair goal attainment and aims to repair those beliefs
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapist
Karen Horney
Devised theory that personality governed by one of ten needs
Psychoanalytic Theorist
Martin Seligman
Learned helplessness theory of depression
Howard Gardner
Theory of multiple intelligences: linguistic, logical/math, spatial, musical, bodily, interpersonal, and intrapersonal
McClelland & Rumelhart
Parallel distributed processing views cognition and behavior as an interconnected network of simple units
Raymond Cattell
Theorized fluid versus crystallized intelligence
Gordon Allport
Cardinal, central, and secondary traits are responsible for behavior and personality.

Functional Autonomy

Idiographic vs. nomothetic
Trait Theorist
David McClelland
Need for Achievement
Herman Witkin
Field dependence
Darley & Latane
Studied social influence and diffusion of responsibility in altruism/bystander intervention

Pluralistic ignorance
Walter Cannon
Studied autonomic nervous system
Arthur Jensen
Argued that intelligence as measured by IQ tests is almost entirely genetic. Also focused on differences in IQ scores across race.
Leon Festinger
Cognitive Dissonance--conflict when attitudes not in sync with behavior.

Minimal justification effect
Klein, Winnicott, Mahler & Kernberg
Object-relations theory
Louis Thurstone
Identified 7 primary mental abilities as measure of intelligence
Robert Zajonc
Emission of dominant responses/mere exposure effect
Herman Ebbinghaus
Method of Savings
Noam Chomsky
Best known for work on generative and transformational grammar
David Rosenhan
Investigated effects of being labeled mentally ill by being admitted into psychiatric hospital, though otherwise normal
Ewald Hering
Opponent-process theory of color vision
Thomas Szasz
The Myth of Mental Illness. Mental disorders are disorders because they differ from the social norm.
Kurt Lewin
Leadership styles: Autocratic, democratic, laissez-faire
AR Luria
Studied numerous neurological disorders such as aphasia
James Stoner
Group polarization: tendency for group discussion to enhance group's initial tendencies towards riskiness or caution
Gender differences not due to gender per se, but differing social roles
Muzafer Sherif
Robber's Cave Experiment: Goals best obtained thru intergroup cooperation. Dramatically improves intergroup relations.
George Sperling
Devised partial-report procedure for studying the limits of memory and recall
Keller & Breland
Instinctual Drift
Young & Helmhotz
Trichromatic theory of color vision states that cones have red, blue, and green receptors. Ratio of activity determines color.
John Locke
Tabula rasa: the mind is a blank slate at birth
Niko Tinbergen
Introduced experimental methods into natural animal habitats
Philip Zimbardo
Prison simulation. Found that people are more likely to commit antisocial acts if they feel anonymous.

Irving Janis
Groupthink: tendency of decision making groups to strive for consensus by ignoring discordant info

Risky shift: group decisions are riskier than the average of individual choices.

Value hypothesis