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42 Cards in this Set

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cognitive psychology
study of thinking, processing, and reasoning
concepts
how one represents the relationships between two things. We organize our world through concepts
hypotheses
ideas used to test relationships and then to form concepts
mental set
aka set. Preconceived notion of how to look at a problem. May help future problem solving
schema
cognitive structure that includes ideas about events or objects and the attributes that accompany them. New events and objects are categorized based on how well they match with existing attributes
scripts
ideas about the way events typically unfold
prototypes
are the "representative" or "usual" type of an event or object (like stereotypes--e.g. scientist is good at math and does not write poetry)
insight
having a new perspective on an old problem--A-ha! experience
convergent thinking
type of thinking used to find the one solution to a problem. e.g. math
J.P. Guilford
first defined convergent and divergent thinking
divergent thinking
used when more than one possibility exists in a situation. e.g. creative thinking, a dissenter in a group leads to divergent thinking
functional fixedness
people develop closed minds about the functions of certain objects. Cannot think of creative uses or think divergently
problem space
sum total of possible moves that one might make in order to solve a problem
algorithms
problem-solving strategies that consider every possible solution and eventually hit on the correct solution. May take long time
heuristics
problem-solving strategies that use rules of thumb or short-cuts based on what has worked in the past. Cannot guarantee a solution, but is faster than an algorithm
metacognition
process of thinking about your own thinking. Might involve knowing what solving strategies to apply and when to apply them, or knowing how to adapt your thinking to new situations
meditation
intervening mental process that occurs between stimulus and response. Reminds us what to do or how to respond based on ideas or past learning.
computer simulation models
designed to solve problems as humans do
Allen Newell and Herbert Simon
introduced the first computer simulation model, called the "Logic theorist", and then revamped it (today called the "General Problem Solver")
Logic theorist
first computer simulation model. Today is called the "General Problem Solver"
deductive reasoning
leads to specific conclusions that must follow from the information given
inductive reasoning
leads to general rules that are inferred from specifics
logical reasoning errors
"atmosphere effect", "semantic effect", and "confirmation bias"
atmosphere effect
logical reasoning error in which a conclusion is influenced by the way information is phrased
semantic effect
logical reasoning error in which one believes in a conclusion because of what one knows or thinkgs to be correct rather than what logically follows from the information given
confirmation effect
logical reasoning error in which one remembers and uses information that confirms what one already thinks
reaction time
used to measure cognitive processing. Also called "latency". Response speed for all kinds of tasks declines significantly with age.
latency
"reaction time"
Elizabeth Loftus and Allan Collins
suggested that people have hierarchical semantic networks in their memory that group together related items. The more closely related 2 items are, the more closely they are located in the hierarchy, and the more quickly a subject can link them
Allan Collins and Ross Quillian
assert that people make decisions about the relationship between items by searching their cognitive semantic hierarchies. The farther apart in the hierarchy, the longer it will take to see a connection
association between pictures vs. associations between words
associations between pictures takes longer probably because pictures must mentally be put into words before associations can be made
semantic priming
in a word-recognition task, is the presentation of a related item before the next item. Decreases reaction time because it activates the node of the second item in the semantic hierarchy.
Stroop effect
decreased speed of naming the color of ink used to print words when the color of ink and the word itself are of different colors
bottom-up processing
recognizing an item or pattern from data or details. Data driven
top-down processing
guided by large concepts
automatic processing
when a task is effortlessly done because the task is subsumed under a higher organization process
eye movements and gaze durations
indicators of info processing while reading
saccades
eye movements from one fixation point to another
James-Lange Theory of Emotion
Theory that addresses biological and cognitive components of emotion. Claims that bodily reactions to situations cause emotion. First, physiological responses are present in situations, then we feel the emotion that comes with these bodily reactions.
Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion
aka Emergency theory. Theory that addresses biological and cognitive components of emotion. Asserts that amotions and bodily reactions occur simultaneously. In emotional situations, our body is cued to react in the brain (emotion) and in the body (biological).
Stanley Schachter and Jerome Singer
proposed a "Cognitive Theory of Emotion" called the "Schachter-Singer theory"
Cognitive Theory of Emotion
aka Schachter-Singer theory". Asserts that emotions are the products of physiological reactions. But, they claim that cognitions are the missing link the the chain. A particular body state is felt. Since many different situations produce similar bodily reactions, the cognition we attach to a situation determines which emotion we feel in response.