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28 Cards in this Set

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* Transformation
the type of rule that moves an element from one place in the tree to another
. Transformational Grammars –
generative grammars that include transformations
. Deep Structure –
transformations applied to the output of the base component to which the transformations apply (prior to transformations, the bare version)
, Surface Structure –
transformations and inflectional spell out rules together
Particle Movement –
it removes the particle from the verb and reattaches it directly under the verb phrase at the end of the clause
Movement –
departure from the basic word order; accounted for by writing transformations that move from one part of the sentence to another
. Writing of transformation rules:
1. Title: name the transformation
2. Optional or obligatory?
3. What moves where?
4. Does the tree have to meet any special conditions before the rule can apply?
Semantic Structure –
comes between the deep structure and surface structure: apply transformational rules that change the meaning of the sentence before you apply the surface structure (inflectional morphemes, etc). S-structure = shallow structure
Two types of special prominence that may be placed on noun phrases:
focus and topic
focus
is sometimes called contrastive focused because it puts items in contrast with other things.
Topic
is the main idea of information that carries through from sentence to sentence throughout the paragraph
4 Common Strategies to Express Contrastive Focus:
1. Stress/higher pitch
2. Moving an item to a special position in the sentence (usually the beginning)
3. Inserting a focus morpheme next to the focus constituent
4. Cleft construction (clefts contain both nominal complement and relative clause referring to the same person or thing)
Topicalization –
the transformation that fronts objects in English
Basic Order –
the order produced by the base;
when picking a basic word order:
1. base hypothesis on clauses which have neutral semantics
2. avoid pronouns, but rather base hypothesis on the basic word order on positions that
nouns occupy
3. look at the order of elements in embedded clauses not main clauses
Penthouse Principle –
upstairs clauses have more transformations and fronting than embedded clauses which don’t have constituent/particle movement; application of it: take the order of embedded clauses as our guide
Statements –
sentences which are normally used to convey information (secondary functions: request information, influence others’ behavior)
Questions –
normally used to request information (secondary functions: influence others’ behavior, convey information, introduce topics and otherwise make explicit the structure of the discourse)
Commands –
– normally used to influence the behavior of others (secondary functions: request information)
Distinction between primary and secondary functions:
1. The primary function is what we use as the basis for naming a form 2. Primary functions are what allow us to identify a structure in one language as being ‘in some sense’ a structure in another 3. Although the primary functions of questions will be the same in all languages, the secondary functions vary quite a bit from one language to the next
Pragmatics –
the study of how people use language to communicate
Content/Information Questions –
[wh] questions; answer ?’s like who, what, when, where, why, how
Yes/no Questions or Truth Value (T/F) Questions –
rising intonation; 3 ways to identify yes/no Q’s: intonation, a question particle (serves as a question mark), and word order change
. Two differences to note between the questions and statements:
1. Interrogative Adverbs – where, when, why, how (these interrogative words allow us to question a particular category 2. Interrogative words questioning obliques occur at the beginning of the clause, but ordinary obliques occur at the end
3 Strategies for forming yes-no Q’s:
1. Intonation Pattern – simplest and most common strategy to form yes-no questions in
languages; in many languages, intonation can be the only difference between
statements and the corresponding yes-no questions.
2. YNQ particle or affix
3. Change in word order
Mood –
– indicates something about the relationship of a sentences meaning to the facts of the real world; usually marked on verbs
Indicative Mood –
– primarily in statements (to communicate information about the world)
Imperative Mood –
– primarily in commands (to exert some influence over the world)