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53 Cards in this Set

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To choose correctly among the forms of who, re-phrase the sentence so you choose between he and him. If you want him, write whom; if you want he, write who.
Who do you think is responsible? (Do you think he is responsible?)
Whom shall we ask to the party? (Shall we ask him to the party?)
Give the box to whomever you please. (Give the box to him.)
Give the box to whoever seems to want it most. (He seems to want it most. [And then the clause "whoever seems to want it most" is the object of the preposition "to."])
Whoever shows up first will win the prize. (He shows up first.)
The three articles
a, an, the
Adjectives
Adjectives are words that describe or modify another person or thing in the sentence. The Articles — a, an, and the — are adjectives.
A clause
A clause is a group of related words containing a subject and a verb
A phrase
A phrase is a group of related words that does not include a subject and verb
NOUN PHRASE
NOUN PHRASE
A noun phrase comprises a noun (obviously) and any associated modifiers:
Participial phrases
Participial phrases always act as adjectives. When they begin a sentence, they are often set off by a comma (as an introductory modifier); otherwise, participial phrases will be set off by commas if they are parenthetical elements.

The stone steps, having been worn down by generations of students, needed to be replaced. [modifies "steps"]
Working around the clock, the firefighters finally put out the last of the California brush fires. [modifies "firefighters"]
The pond, frozen over since early December, is now safe for ice-skating. [modifies "pond"]
GERUND PHRASE
GERUND PHRASE
Gerunds, verbals that end in -ing and that act as nouns, frequently are associated with modifiers and complements in a gerund phrase. These phrases function as units and can do anything that a noun can do. Notice that other phrases, especially prepositional phrases, are frequently part of the gerund phrase.

Cramming for tests is not a good study strategy. [gerund phrase as subject]
John enjoyed swimming in the lake after dark. [gerund phrase as object]
I'm really not interested in studying biochemistry for the rest of my life. [gerund phrase as object of the preposition in ]
INFINITIVE PHRASE
INFINITIVE PHRASE
An infinitive phrase consists of an infinitive — the root of the verb preceded by to — and any modifiers or complements associated with it. Infinitive phrases can act as adjectives, adverbs, and nouns.
APPOSITIVE PHRASE
APPOSITIVE PHRASE
An appositive is a re-naming or amplification of a word that immediately precedes it. (An appositive, then is the opposite of an oppositive.) Frequently another kind of phrase will serve in apposition.

My favorite teacher, a fine chess player in her own right, has won several state-level tournaments. [Noun phrase as appositive]

The best exercise, walking briskly, is also the least expensive. [Gerund phrase as appositive]

Tashonda's goal in life, to become an occupational therapist, is within her grasp this year, at last. [Infinitive phrase as appositive]
PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE
PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE
A prepositional phrase consists of a preposition, a noun or pronoun that serves as the object of the preposition, and, more often than not, an adjective or two that modifies the object.
FANBOYS
For And Nor But Or Yet So
Dependent Clauses
Dependent Clauses
Dependent Clauses cannot stand by themselves and make good sense. They must be combined with an independent clause so that they become part of a sentence that can stand by itself.
The Case of Then and Than
Than is used to make comparisons.

"other than" helps us make an implied comparison
Common Subordinating Conjunctions
Common Subordinating Conjunctions
after although as
as if as long as
as though because
before even if
even though if if only
in order that now that
once rather than
since so that than that
though till unless until
when whenever where whereas
wherever while
Correlative Conjunctions
both and
not only but also
not but
either or neither nor
whether or
as as
The conjunctive adverbs
The conjunctive adverbs such as however, moreover, nevertheless, consequently, as a result are used to create complex relationships between ideas.
Transitive Verb
An transitive verb is an action or linking verb that has a complement.
Transitive Verb
A transitive verb is an action or linking verb that has a complement.

Transitive: He runs a large corporation.
(The verb runs has a direct object, corporation.)
Intransitive Verb:
Intransitive: He runs around the block daily.
(There is no direct object.)
dependent clauses
dependent clauses

they "depend" on a main clause to give them meaning.
Indefinite Pronouns
Using Indefinite Pronouns

Indefinite pronouns are words which replace nouns without specifying which noun they replace.

Singular: another, anybody, anyone, anything, each, either, everybody, everyone, everything, little, much, neither, nobody, no one, nothing, one, other, somebody, someone, something

Plural: both, few, many, others, several

Singular or Plural: all, any, more, most, none, some
Absolute Adjective
Absolute Adjective
The BASE form of an ADJECTIVE on a scale of comparison, for example, big, in contrast with the COMPARATIVE bigger and the SUPERLATIVE biggest.
See also
Abstract Noun
Abstract Noun
Abstract nouns include love, optimism, truth, freedom, belief, hope and communism. They refer to non-concrete
Bare Infinitive
Bare Infinitive
An INFINITIVE verb which occurs without to, e.g. Help me open the door. Distinct from the TO-INFINITIVE: Help me to open the door.
Adjective Phrase
Adjective Phrase
A phrase headed by an adjective (e.g. proud, good, happy). The Head may be premodified (very good). Certain Heads may be postmodified (proud of you), or can be pre- and postmodified (very proud of you).
Adverb
Adverb
An open word class which includes happily, slowly, quietly, now, and very. Adverbs can modify an adjective (e.g. very big), another adverb (e.g. very quietly) or a verb (e.g. John walked slowly).
Adverb Phrase
Adverb Phrase
A phrase headed by an adverb (e.g. quietly, carefully). In an adverb phrase, the Head word can be premodified as (e.g. too quietly, quite carefully). It can be postmodified (e.g. carefully enough). An adverb phrase can also consist of a Head which is both premodified and postmodified (e.g. very luckily for us).
Agent
Agent
The entity which performs the action described by a VERB (John kicked the ball). The agent may be missing in a PASSIVE construction (cf. The ball was kicked).
Agreement
Agreement
This usually refers to Subject-verb agreement, and denotes the fact that a verb ending agrees with the number of the Subject (the dog barks / the dogs bark). Agreement applies only to PRESENT TENSE verbs. It is also known as concord.
Alternative Interrogative
Alternative Interrogative
A type of interrogative sentence in which two or more alternatives are presented, e.g. Should I telephone or send an email?
Auxiliary Verb
Auxiliary Verb
An auxiliary verb (or HELPING VERB) occurs with a MAIN VERB. Examples: (1) Sue has made a chocolate cake (2) Kate is talking to her boss (3) I do not like beans (4) The cat was chased by the blackbird (5) You must eat your beans
Base Form
Base Form
The base form is the form of a word to which INFLECTIONS may be added, eg. walks, walked, walking
Clause
Clause
A clause is a string of words which expresses a proposition and typically consists of at least a SUBJECT and a verb:
Collective Noun
Collective Noun
A noun which refers to a group of individual people or animals: population, herd, flock, committee.
Common Noun
Common Noun
A noun which refers to common, everyday entities such as: cat, dog, sister, bucket, book.
Comparative
Comparative
The form of an adjective or an adverb at the middle point on a scale of comparison. Comparison is expressed using an -er ending or with more:

Tim is taller than Mary
Amy is more industrious than Paul
John reads more quickly than David
Comparative Clause
Comparative Clause
A type of subordinate clause which expresses comparison, and which is introduced by than or as:

She is older than I expected
She is (not) as old as I expected
Complex Preposition
Complex Preposition
A two- or three-word preposition: along with, because of, due to.
Conditional Clause
Conditional Clause
A type of subordinate clause which expresses a condition, typically introduced by if : I'll be home early if I can get a taxi.
Auxillary Verbs or helping verbs
Auxillary Verbs or helping verbs are verbs that do not appear alone in sentences but always accompany one or more other verbs.
be.can, have, may, should, might
adverbs
modify verbs adjectives and other adverbs
Direct Object
Names the person place or thing directly acted upon byt he cation described by the verb
Dependant Clauses
Dependant Clauses are groups of words that contain subjects and predicates but cannot stand alone as sentences
Contraction
Contraction is a combination of two words in shich an apostrophe marks the place of o ne or more omitted letters.
It's = It is.
Gerunds
Gerunds are verb forms ending in -ing that are used as nouns

"He was in the running."
Indefinite pronouns
indefinite pronouns refer to unspecified people or things. they include words that end in -body,-one, and-thing. Everybody, everyone and everything.
Independant clauses
Independant clauses are clauses that can stand alone as sentences. Have both subject and predicate
Predicate
anything that is not part of the complete subject is the predicate
Indirect objects
Indirect objects are objects of verbs
(action verbs or transitive verbs) that can be changed in phrases beginning with the prepositions TO, and FOR.
Interjections
Interjections are not part of the sentence and they express an emotion.
Wow!
Intransitive verbs
Intransitive verbs are verbs that describe actions but are not followed by direct objects or complements. Linking verbs.
Linking Verbs
Linking Verbs are verbs that describe conditions, not actions. The forms of be,
am, is, or are are examples of linking verbs. Linking verbs are followed not by objects but by subject complements-words phrases or clauses that rename or describe subjects
Non-restrictive Clauses
Non-restrictive Clauses are clauses that provide additional details about the words they modify. They are marked off by commas from the rest of the sentences in which they appear