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29 Cards in this Set

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Staphylococcus (general)
G+, coccus in singles, pairs, short chains
Facultative anaerobe
Catalase +
Widely distributed in environment
Enzymes (Lipase, hemolysins, coagulases, etc) cause abscess formation, avoids phagocytosis w/ hyaluronidase and protein A, some beta lactamase activity
Host immunity against, not good.
Treatment - depends on abscess contents - may inactivate drugs. Use cephalosporins, lactamase resistant penicillins (clavulanic acid)unless its MRSA, enrofloxacin, erythromycin (if not resistant)
Staphylococcus intermedius
Coagulase +
Causes otitis, pyoderma, urinary calculi in dogs.
Infections in any wound
Staphylococcus aureus
Coagulase +
Cows - mastitis (including peracute gangrenous mastitis)
Horse- wounds, joints
Chickens - bumble foot
Double zone hemolysis
Often resistant to penicillin, ampicillin, tetracycline
May use pirlimycin IMM
Staphylococcus epidermidis
Staphylococcus simulans
Staphylococcus xylosus
Staphylococcus saprophyticus
Staphylococcus schleiferi
Coagulase (-)
Usually not pathogens
Found in wounds, surgical infections, UTI/cystitis (cats), mastitis
epidermidis - opportunistic
schleiferi - on skin
saprophyticus - in urine
Staphylococcus hyicus
Coagulase +/-
Non-hemolytic on sheep BA
Greasy pig - exfoliative dermatitis
Enters through wounds in skin - hypersensitivity, skin thickens - eventually kidney damage
Autogenous bacterins beneficial for immunization against hyicus
Streptococcus (general)
G+ coccus, single/pairs, long chains in abscesses, mucoid when run together
Catalase (-)
Facultative anaerobe or microaerophilic
Normal flora
M-protein and hyaluronic acid antiphagocytic
M protein inhibits complement activation and binds Fc of Abs
Toxins and enzymes damage membranes, lyse RBCs
Alpha, gamma hemolytics normal, betas are pathogens
Treat w/ penicillin for beta hemolytics and erythromycin/ampicillin for others
Streptococcus pyogenes
Group A strep
Causes strep throat
Not that important, but there is one flesh-eating variant
Streptococcus agalactiae
Group B strep
Beta hemolytic or non-hemolytic sometimes
Produces arrow on CAMP test (CAMP +)
Obligate pathogen found mammary gland
May cause mastitis
Streptococcus zooepidemicus
Group C strep
Beta hemolytic
Mucoid colony
Variable M protein - so, about 15 serotypes (from diff't capsules)
Dogs, horses - resp tract infections, abscesses
Horses also metritis, eyes, wounds - VERY IMPORTANT for Horses
Pigs - abscesses, arthritis, abortion
Streptococcus equi
Group C strep
Beta hemolytic, mucoid colonies
Capsulated
Important herd problem - strangles in horses (may have carriers with ongoing guttural pouch infections)
Has antiphagocytic distinct M protein
Animals may have resistance after 1 infection
Streptococcus dysgalactiae
Group C strep
Alpha or non-hemolytic
Bovine mastitis
Streptococcus uberis
Serologically diverse
Alpha or non-hemolytic
bovine mastitis
CAMP +
Streptococcus equisimilis
Beta hemolytic
Non-capsulated
Very widely distributed among number/species animals
Streptococcus suis
Group r-S strep
Alpha or non-hemolytic
34 serotypes
meningitis, pneumonia, arthritis, myocarditis in swine
Streptococcus porcinus
Group E strep
Beta hemolytic
Swine - mandibular abscesses
Greasy pig disease
Streptococcus canis
Infections in neonatal dogs and cats
Enterococcus faecalis
Enterococcus is formerly fecal streptococci or enterococci
So... G+
See in canine ears, all animals in wounds
Treat with ampicillin, secondarily sulfa/trimethoprim, Gentamicin (systemic inf)
E. faecalis: Group D (strep)
weak alpha or non-hemolytic
Normal flora intestine
Listeria monocytogenes
Listeria ivanovil
G+ rod
motile
catalase +
facultative anaerobe
Ingestion from soil/feces,disseminated in blood stream, spreads along trigeminal nerve,
Internalin allows movement across cell membranes, hemolysin, LPS, listeriolysin allows breaking out of phagosome into cell
Meningoencephalitis (looks like rabies), abortion
Beta hemolysis (narrow)
Treat with sulfa/trimethoprim, erythromycin, oxytetracycline (difficult b/c in brain)
Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae
G+ rod, alpha hemolysis, catalase neg
Non-motile
Facultative anaerobe
No toxins, causes hypersensitivity immune complexes, has hyaluronidase, neuraminidase (penetrates cell)
Infects joints, heart, vessels, petechial hemorrhages in liver, lungs
Swine: septicemia - "diamond skin dz", can vaccinate for
Sheep - after docking, castration
Treat with penicillin
Rhodococcus equi
G+ coccoid rod
Aerobic
Catalase +, mycolic acid in wall
Heavy capsule
Get from feces enriched soil (sometimes airborne)
Virulent strains have specific plasmid
Acts w/o toxins, enzymes used, survives in macrophages (b/c of mycolic acids)
Causes bronchopneumonia in foals - fever, low BCS, abscesses in lungs
Get CAMP-like rxn w/ C. pseudotuberculosis
Increasingly resistant, use rifampin, maybe erythromycin
Corynebacterium (general)
G+ small rods
Variable appearance, catalase +
Are "diptheroids"
Commensals of skin, mucosa
Susceptible to many antibiotics - abscesses make treatment difficult
Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis
Caseous lymphadenitis in sheep/goats
Produces phospholipase D (exotoxin) - lyses RBCs, decreases neutrophil activity/complement activation
Has lipid in cell wall (good for survival/leukotoxicity)
Enters via abrasions
Beta hemolysis, crumbly colonies
Is bacterin/toxoid (must use in advance)
Corynebacterium renale
Corynebacterium pilosum
Corynebacterium cystitidis
Found genitally in cattle
Infection by urine splash
Has pilus
Causes pyelonephritis (cattle), urinary infections (swine)
No hemolysis
Flat, off-white/tan colonies
Bacillus anthracis
G+ rod
aerobic/facultative
spore-forming
Bacillus motile except B anthracis
In soil (anthracis), air, dust, water
2 virulence factors required for activity - capsule, exotoxin
Exotoxin - PA + LF = lethal toxin, PA + EF = edema toxin
Death due to massive bacteremia
Intestinal, cutaneous, pulmonary forms
No hemolysis (anthracis), most Bacillus are hemolytic
Treat w/ ciprofloxacin b4 culture, then penicillin/tetracyclines if not resistant
PA used in vaccine,
B. cereus seen in mastitis
Arcanobacterium (pyogenes)
AKA actinomyces/corynebacterium pyogenes
G+ pleomorphic rods, swollen at ends
Lives in mm of nasopharynx
Entrance via injury, has weak hemolysins that act as cytotoxins, get heavily encapsulated abscesses w/ anaerobic bacteria in them
Cattle/sheep/swine - suppurative pneumonia/mastitis, metrits, joint inf
Slow-growing (48-72hrs) colonies
Beta hemolysis, catalase neg
Susceptible to most antibiotics
Actinomyces bovis
G+ filamentous rods
Live in mm or oral cavity
Causes chronic granulomatous suppurative lesions "lumpy jaw" in cattle
Suppurative mastitis in swine
Treat w/ penicillin/tetracycline
Actinomyces viscosus
G+ filamentous rod
In oral cavity of dogs, enters blood via wound/periodontal disease, get abscesses, fistulous tracts, pyothorax
See granules in aspirate
Colonies form in 3-7 days
Treat with penicillin/tetracycline
Nocardia asteroides
G+ filamentous rods
Partially acid fast (differentiates)
Lives in soil, upon entrance to body trauma/inhalation, destroys macrophages b/c resistant to oxidative killing via a catalase and superoxide dismutase
In dogs/cats pyothorax, draining lesions, in cattle - mastitis
Treatment difficult - maybe imipenem
Dermatophilus congolensis
G+, zoonotic
Obligate parasite on skin
Get scabs with inflammatory exudates under them
Cattle/horses - lesions (scabs/crusts)
Sheep - lumpy wool
Cats - tongue and mouth involvement
Diagnose by grinding up scab, staining, looking for "railroad ties" appearance
Treat with penicillin