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27 Cards in this Set

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What differentiates Gram+ from Gram-?
Unlike the Gram positive cell wall, the Gram negative cell wall contains a thin peptidoglycan layer adjacent to the cytoplasmic membrane, which is responsible for the cell wall's inability to retain the crystal violet stain upon decolourisation with ethanol during Gram staining.

In addition to the peptidoglycan layer, the Gram negative cell wall also contains an additional outer membrane composed by phospholipids and lipopolysaccharides which face into the external environment.
What are the antigenic structures of Gram-negative bacteria?
O-polysaccharide (side chains of LPS)

H antigen -- on flagella (antibody can immobilize)

K antigen -- capsular material
3 examples of exotoxin in Gram-negative bacteria:
Cytotoxin
Hemolysin
Enterotoxin
LPS is an example of what type of Gram-negative virulence factor?
LPS is an endotoxin
Which is more reliable, a Gram-stain or a culture?
Gram-stai is more reliable than a culture
Illness associated with:
E. coli
UTI
bacteremia
intraabdominal infection
neonatal meningitis
Illness associated with:
Shigella
enteric infection
Illness associated with:
Salmonellae
enteric infection
Illness associated with:
Yersiniae
plague
enteric infection
Illness associated with:
Klebsiellae
UTI
pneumonia
bacteremia
nosocomial infection
postoperative meningitis
Illness associated with:
Proteus
UTI
soft-tissue infection
bacteremia
Medically important Enterobacteriaceae include:
Shigella
Salmonella
Yersinia
Klebsiella
Proteus
Common clinical syndromes associated with Enterobacteriaceae include:
bacteremia
UTI
gastroenteritis
pneumonia
soft-tissue infections
meningitis
osteomyelitis
...nearly everything!
E. coli causes everything except:
pneumonia
Klebsiella does not cause, what?
enteric infections
Clinical syndromes associated with Yersinia pestis
Bubonic - acute lymphadenitis
Septicemic - fever, hypotension, no bubos
Pneumonic - cough, hemoptysis, no bubos
Cutaneous - pustule, eschar, with bubo
Meningitis - fever, nuchal rigidity, with bubo
Clinical syndromes associated with Yersinia enterocolitica
enterocolitis (2/3)
LN in mesentary are inflammed
bacteremia
hepatic abscess
osteomyelitis
endocarditis

**able to grow in low temps
Clinical syndromes associated with Yersinia pseudotuberculosis
pseudoappendicitis
lethal bacteremia despite antibiotics
Vibrios (alginolyticus and vulnificus) are often associated with what clinical condition?
cellulitis

**Chesapeake Bay, digging for clams
Aeromonas (hydrophilia and sobria) are often associated with what clinical condition?
soft tissue infections

**Chesapeake Bay
Pasturella multocida is associated with what clinical condition?

What is significant about the onset?
Focal soft tissue infections (onset of inflammation is FAST!)
Acute respiratory infections
Bacteremia
Brucellosis is commonly associated with slaughterhouse workers and veterinarians.

What are the clinical manifestations?
Multiply in LN -> dissemination -> Localize in liver, spleen, kidney (RES) -> GRANULOMAS -> casseous necrosis

They are intracellular parasites that multiply in macrophages. Cell-mediated immunity required!

**non-specific symptoms (undulant fever, sweats, malaise, abdominal pain, loss of appetite)
What are the clinical forms of Tularemia?
Ulceroglandular 21-87%
Glandular 3-20%
Typhoidal 5-30%
Pneumonic 7-20%
What clinical manifestations are associated with Tularemia?
Pulse-temperature dissociation in 42%
cough, myalgias, chest discomfort, sore throat, vomiting, diarrhea...
Bartonella bacilliformis causes Oroya Fever, which manifests how?
Chronic verruga (cutaneous nodules) that may persist for years.

Carrion's Disease
Bacterial penetrate erythrocytes, causing RBS fragility and anemia.
Bartonella hensalae causes what disease?
Cat Scratch Disease

Granulomas with central necrosis and giant cells. Disseminated tissue infection may be associated with bacteremia. Seen in AIDs patients.
Acinetobacter species are associated with what serious medical problem?
Multi-drug resistance