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53 Cards in this Set

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Stage
A period of time perhaps several yrs, during which a person's activites have certain characteristics in common.
Hierarchical intergration ( Piaget's Theory)
A stage that organizes and intergrates activites and skills from pervious stages to acheive broader and more complex patterns.
Id
Ego
Superego
According to Freud's Personality Theory
Id=Born with it; blindly seeking pleasure
Ego=Cognitive develop; sensible self protective
Superego=last stage;your internal voice
Psychosexual stages
Complexities of relationships and conflicts that arise between thew Id, Ego, and Superego as a result of development changes
Oral stage
First yr;satisfied through the mouth.
Oral fixation-denial of oral pleasure could cuase overeating,talkative,smoking
Anal stage
2nd yr;control over the sphincter brings pleasure ( hold and release). Anal fixation holding on or letting go difficulties
Phallic stage
age 3-5; pleasure from genital region. Oedipus and Electra complex. Fixation permiscuious or unable to be intimate
Latency Stage
Age 5; latent and unexpressed
Genital Stage
Puberty; tries to express complex sexual feelings
Erickson
Personality Theory; Psychosocial stages
"Eight stages of Man"
Trust vs. Mistrust
Birth to 1 yr sense of safety and tgrust for the world around them. Positive=Hope/Neg=fear and mistrust
Autonomy vs. Shame
1-3yrs.Independence based on new mental and motor skills. Positive=will-power/Neg=self-doubt
Initiative vs. Guilt
3-6yrs. Experiment in grown-up roles.
Positive-purpose/Neg=guilt over action or thought
Industry vs.Inferiority
6-12yrs.old. Needs to learn important academic skills to compare with peers.
positve=confidence/Neg=lack of confidence
Identity vs. Role confusion
12-20 move toward adulthood by making choices about values,vocation,etc.
Positive=fidelity/Neg=no sense of self
Itimacy vs. Isolation
Young adult; willing to share identity w/others an commit to partnerships. Positive=love/Neg=fear of intimacy
Generativity vs. Stagnation
Middle adulthood;contribution to next generation,creat something of value. Positive=care/Neg=self-absorption
Ego intergity vs. Despair
Late adulthood; comes to terms with successes and failures realizes dignity in own life. Positive=wisdom/Neg=regret
Cognative Development Theory
(Piaget)
outlines stages of development of cognition especially logical thinking.
Sensorimotor Stage
last about 2 yrs the absence of representational thought . Babies cannot symbolically represent thier expereinces.
Preoperational Stage
unable to think logically- One dimensional thinking cannot problem solve abstractly
Concrete Operational Stage
Logical; thought anchored in the concrete world. although still limited
Formal Operational Stage
Able to plan the future and engage in all abstarct thinking
Decalages
Within-in stage variation
Incremental Development
Threads of sameness evolve with the differences
Learning Theories
Behavorist Tradition
Classical & operant conditioning
In these process behavior is paired with eviormental events.
Conditioned Stimulus
When a neutral event or stimulus is associated with a stimulus that cuases an automatic response
Operant
Random or accidental action
Reinforcement
Immediately after the operant a reward or punishment occurs
Social Learning Theories
How children aquire personality chracteristics and social skils through observational learning or "Modeling".
Generalization
If new events are experienced that are very similar to events in the original learning context the learned behaviors may extend to other events
Multidemsional Models
generally apply all domains of development from the cognative to the social. There are layers od interaction adn change cognative and social
Brofenbrenner's bioecological model
Described all development personality and cognative as a function of proximal processes
Distal processes
factors outside the immediate external enviroment, including internal forces which modify the proximal process
Demand characteristics
Behavioral tendencies that often encourage or discouragecertain kinds of reactions from others.
Microsystem
imediate enviorment where prxoimal processes are palyed out
Mesosystem
Relations among the various microsystems such as school, home, playground etc.
Exosystem
Setting that children are not directly in contact with but are influnenced by. ie. teachers family life
Marcosystem
Including the customs and character of the larger culture that help shape the microsystems. For example cultural expectations.
The principle of multifinality
that many indidvidual pathways of development may lead to an array of outcomes.
The princicple of equifinality
many early development pathways can produce similar outcomes
Prevention Science
a multidisciplinary mix of human development,psychopathology,epidemiology,education,& Criminology
Primary Prevention
Is an attempt to forestall the development of problems by promoting health and wellness in the general population
Secondary prevention
an attempt to reduce the incidence of disorders among those that are at high risk or provide treatment to forstall problems
Behavior genetics
motivated by the assumption that psychologuical traits are dependent on the genes one inherits
Ethinic group
Chartacterized by shared culture:traditions,attitudes, values and beliefs handed down form one genration to the next
Sociocultural Theories
Lev Vygotsky
Cognative development may be qualitatively different in different cultures
Mechanistic view
humans are highly mallable and recptive to outside intervention
Organismic Theories
Depict humans as active initiators in their own development
Self-organizing
Fil,tering information through own existing mental constructs and influencing the enviorment
Constructiivism
individuals are not just passive receptors of information who aquire knowledge via external stimulation or manipulation
Social constructivism
Knowledge is constructed within the context of social relationships and stresses the influence of class, gender and culture on developmental beliefs