Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/24

Click to flip

24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
1

Name 5 characteristics of minerals.
1. occurs naturally
2. is a solid
3. has definite chemical composition
4. atoms are arranged in an orderly pattern
5. it is organic
2

What is the most common element of the earth's crust?
Oxygen (symbol O) 46.6%
3

What is the second most common element in the earth's crust?
Silicon (symbol Si) 27.7%
4

Name the 8 most common elements of the earth's crust in their order of occurrence.
Oxygen (O), Silicon (Si), Aluminum (Al), Iron (Fe), Calcium (Ca), Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), Magnesium (Mg)
5

Name 3 main ways that minerals form.
1. The MAGMA Process; example: diorite

2. The PRESSURE Process; example: horneblende schist

3. The slow evaporation of water that contains dissolved ions; example: halite
6

What is MAGMA?
molten rock inside the earth in which atoms, molecules and ions move freely.
7

describe the MAGMA process for forming minerals.
1. magma rises from deep within the earth
2. the magma cools and the atoms, ions and molecules form compounds
3. over time, molecules of the compounds mass together to form mineral grains
8

describe the PRESSURE process for forming minerals.
1. under high temperature and pressure, minerals break down chemically
2. very high temperature and pressure change the minerals without melting them
3. free atoms, ions and molecules recombine to form new minerals
9

Define CRYSTAL.
a regular geometric solid with smooth surfaces called crystal faces
10

True or False?
All minerals have crystalline structures.
True
11

List 6 crystal systems.
1. cubic
2. orthorhombic
3. tetragonal
4. triclinic
5. hexagonal
6. monoclinic
12

Describe the cubic crystal system.
Three equal length axes intersect at 90 degree angles
13

Describe the orthorhombic crystal system.
Three different length axes intersect at 90 degree angles
14

Describe the tetragonal crystal system.
Three axes intersect at 90 degree angles; two axes are equal length
15

Describe the triclinic crystal system.
Three different length axes intersect at oblique angles
16

Describe the hexagonal crystal system.
Three equal length axes intersect at 60 degree angles; a fourth, vertical axis can be longer or shorter than the other three.
17

describe the monoclinic crystal system.
Three different length axes intersect; two at 90 degree angles and the third at an oblique angle
18

Minerals that contain the two most abundant elements, oxygen and silicon, are called ___________.
silicates
19

More than ____ percent of the minerals in the earth's crust are silicates.
90
20

What is the basic building block structure of a silicate?
silica tetrahedron
21

Describe the structure of a silica tetrahedron.
Four oxygen atoms packed closely around a silicon atom.
22

What is a crystal's tendency to split along definite planes called?
cleavage
23

Name 3 physical properties of a mineral that are determined by its crystalline structure.
1. crystal shape
2. hardness
3. density
0

TITLE CARD
Composition and Structure of Minerals