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84 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
A structure found in plant cells but not animal cells:
a. nucleus
b. plasma membrane
c. endoplasmic reticulum
d. cell wall
Cell wall
Structure of cells plasma membrane:
a. proteins sandwiched between 2 layers of phospholipid
b. proteins embedded in 2 layers of phospholipid
c. phospholipid sandwiched between 2 layers of protein
Phospholipids sandwiched between 2 layers of proteins
During diffusion, molecules move from lesser or greater concentration
Move from greater to lesser concentration
Which does not go together?
a. ribosome - protein syntesis
b. lysosome - digestion
c. Golgi app - photosynthesis
Golgi apparatus - photosynthesis
In mitochondria, chemical energy becomes available to cells in what process
Cellular respiration
A long whip-like structure that propels a cell
Unicellular mean what?

Give 2 examples
Single celled

Bacteria and protists
Multicellular means what?

Give 3 examples
Many celled

Plants, animals, fungi
When were light microscopes discovered
Around 1600
What scientist saw "compartments" in cork (oak bark) and what did he call them
Robert Hooke (English)

Called them cells
What scientist developed simple light microscope that could observe tiny living organisms
Anton van Leeuwenhoek (Dutch)
What is the cell theory
All living things are made of cells
Cells are basic unit of structure and function
All cells come from pre-existing cells
How much does a light microscope magnify
How much does an electron microscope magnify
1,000,000 x
Can see inside a cell
What does a scanning electron microscope (SEM) do
Study the surface of cells
What does a transmission electron microscope (TEM) do
Explore the internal structures of preserved cells
Why is the basic light microscope still useful
It can look at living cells.
Both the SEM and TEM can look at dead, preserved cells
A photograph of the view through a microscope is called
Each part of a cell with a specific job to do is called
Organelle (mini-organ)
Are plant and animal cells more alike or different
Thin outer covering of cell that regulates flow of chemicals in and out of cell
Plasma membrane
What part of the cell contains the genetic material DNA
Part of cell between the nucleus and plasma membrane - made of organelles suspended in fluid
What are 2 key differences between plant and animal cells
Plant cells have chloroplasts for photosynthesis

Plant cell has strong cell wall oustide plasma membrane
Conversion of light energy to chemical energy stored in sugar molecules
What protects the plant cell and maintains its shape
Cell wall
What are 2 basic types of cells

What type of cells lacks a nucleus and most organelles - they are the oldest kind of cell
What is an example of a prokaryotic cell
Bacteria and archaea
What are examples of eukaryotic cells
What does eukaryotic mean
Eu - true
Karyon - kernal or nucleus
Which are larger - prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells
Eukaryotic are 10-100 micrometers in diameter.
Larger than bacteria because there is a nucleus and organelles
What part of the cell is considered the "edge of life" because it separates the interior of the cell from the surroundings
Plasma membrane
What is the plasma membrane made up of
Mostly proteins and a lipid called phospholipids
In the plamsa membrane, phospholipids form a two-layer "sandwich" of molecules to surround the cell called a
Phospholipid bilayer
What polar molecules does the plasma membrane not allow to cross?
What are the non-polar molecules that cross easily?
Polar - Sugars and many ions

Nonpolar - Oxygen and carbon dioxide
What are 4 functions of membrane proteins
Enzyme activity
Cell-to-cell recognition
Cell signaling
Transport of materials
Net movement of particles of a substance from higher to lower concentration
A system in balance is in
Allows some substances to cross the plasma membrane and blocks other substances
Selectively permeable membrane
Diffusion across a membrane - does not require energy
Passive transport
Transport proteins provide a pathway for certain molecules to pass through permeable membrane
Facilitated diffusion`
Name 2 types of passive transport - do not require energy
Facilitated diffusion
Passive transport of water across a selectively permeable membrane
A solution with a higher concentration of solute
A solution with a lower concentration of solute
A solution with equal concentrations of solutes
What would happen to an animal cell in a hypotonic solution?
In a hypertonic solution?
Gain water, swell, pop

Loss water, shrivel, die
A plant cell is healthiest in what kind of water balance?
Hypotonic solution like rainwater.
It takes in water to become more firm.
How do animals get rid of too much water in a hypotonic solution?
Fish use gills and kidneys to prevent too much water
Use of energy to move molecules or ions across a membrane
Active transport
Where does the chemical energy come from for protein pumps to work and move solutes across a membrane
During active transport, the protein uses energy and moves the solute from higher or lower concentration?
Moves solute from lower to higher concentration

*Active transport is opposite diffusion
How are large molecules moved through plasma membrane
In vesicles - small membrane sacs
Process by which large molecules are expelled from the cell
Process by which large molecules are brought into the cell
Pair of membranes that surround the nucleus
Nuclear envelope
Ball-like mass of fibers and granules in nucleus
Where are ribosomes located
Proteins are constructed in a cell by what
Where are ribosomes located
Suspended in cytoplasm or
attached to ER - endoplasmic reticulum
Extensive network of membranes within the cytoplasm
Endoplasmic reticulum
Function of endoplasmic reticulum
Manufacture and transporation

Produces large variety of molecules
What part of the ER produces proteins
Rough ER
What part of the ER builds lipid molecules
Smooth ER
What part of the body is rich in rough ER
Salivary glands - secrete lots of protein
What part of the body have large amounts of smooth ER
Ovaries and testes that produce sex hormones
What organelle modifies, stores, and routes cell products
Golgi apparatus
Large membrane-bound sacs used to store undigested nutrients in the cell
Do animal or plant cells have a large central vacuole
Membrane-cound sace that contain digestive enzymes to break down large molecules
List 3 functions of lysosomes
Nourish cells
Destroy harmful bacteria
Recycle damaged organelles
What are 2 types of cellular "power stations"
Where are chloroplasts found
Plant cells and algae
What organelle takes energy from the sun
What organelle unpacks captured sun energy to use for cellular work
Where does cellular respiration occur
What is the main source of energy that cells use for work
Where are mitochondria found
Almost all eukaryotic cells including plants and algae
What helps the cell move, support organelles, maintain shape
Straight, hollow tubes of proteins that give rigidity, shape, organization to a cell
What is a functionof microtubules
Provide a track for organelles to move along
Long, thin, whip-like structure that allows some cells to move.
Waves in an "S" shaped motion
Shorter structures that move back and forth to move a cell and sweep out trapped debris in the respiratory tract