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68 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Which of the following is not an organic molecule:
a. cellulose
b. sucrose
c. water
d. testosterone
Water
Which includes all the other terms on the list:
a. polysaccharide
b. carbohydrate
c. monosaccharide
d. glycogen
Carbohydrate
A molecule that dissolves easily in water
Hydrophilic
Cholesterol is what kind of molecule:
a. protein
b. lipid
c. amino acid
d. carbohydrate
Lipid
The 20 amino acids vary only by:
a. carboxyl groups
b. side groups
c. amino groups
d. lipid groups
Side groups
A specific reactant an enzyme acts upon is called:
a. catalyst
b. sucrase
c. active site
d. substrate
Substrate
Which does an enzyme do:

Lower or raise the activation energy of a reaction
Lowers the reactivation energy - makes it possible for the reaction to occur
Why are carbon atoms so common in living things
Carbon has only 4 electrons in its highest level, so it can form bonds with 4 other atoms - makes lots of carbon skeletons
Most carbon based molecules are organic or in organic
Organic
Most non-carbon-based molecules are organic or inorganic
Inorganic
Are water (H20) and ammonia (NH3) organic or inorganic
Inorganic
Carbon can also bond with atoms from other elements. A molecule made of carbon and hydrogen is called a
Hydrocarbon
What are most hydrocarbon used for and give an example
Most hydrocarbons are used for FUEL.
METHANE is a natural gas used to heat homes
A group of atoms within a molecule that interacts in a predictable way
Functional group
Attracts water molecules
Hydrophilic
Large molecules are built from many smaller molecules called
Monomers
The body cells link monomers together into long chains called
Polymers
What are the 4 main types of large molecules
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Proteins
Nucleic acids
The process that occurs each time a monomer is added to a chain that release RELEASES WATER
DEHYDRATION reaction
The process that occurs each time a polymer is broken down and ADDES WATER - opposite of dehydration reaction
Hydrolysis reaction
What molecule would most likely be used as an energy source just minutes after a meal or can be stored for later
Carbohydrate
Organic compound made of sugar
Carbohydrate
What elements are in a carbohydrate
1 carbon
2 hydrogen
1 oxygen
A simple sugar is called a...

Name 3 examples
Monosaccharide

Glucose, fructose, galactose

"OSE = sugars"
What does the body use as the main fuel supply for cellular work
Sugar, especially glucose
What does the body do with glucose not needed immediately?
Adds to larger molecules or used to make fat!
What is a Disaccharide
Double sugar made of 2 monosaccharides.
Most common is sucrose that comes from plant sap
Long chains of simple sugar monomers
Polysaccharides also called complex carbohydrates
List 3 polysaccharides
Starch
Glycogen
Cellulose
Where does starch come from?

What food are high in starch?
Starch comes from plants.

Potatoes, rice, corn
How do animals and humans store excess sugar
As glycogen in the liver.
The body can break down glycogen if it needs energy.
What polysaccharide is found in plants and used as building material
Cellulose - it is very tough
Humans and animals can not digest cellulose. How does it affect the body?
The body uses cellulose from plants as "fiber" to help keep a healthy digestive system ... make you poop.
Is cellulose a nutrient?
No, we can not absorp it, just used for digestion
What kind of molecules are "water-fearing"
Hydrophobic
Why don't oil and water mix
Oil is a lipid and lipids are hydrophobic
How are lipids used in the body
Create a boundary that contains the watery contents of the cell
Circulate in the body as chemical signals
Store energy as fat
A 3-carbon backbone called glycerol attached to 3 fatty acids is called a
Fat
What do fats do
Store energy for future use
Insulate the body for warmth
What do you call a fat that is liquid at room temperature
Oil
A fat in which all 3 fatty acids chains contain the maximum number of hydrogen atoms
Saturated fat = unhealthy
Are most animal fats like butter, saturated or unsaturated
Saturated - they are usually solid at room temperature
A fat that contains less than the maximum number of hydrogen atoms because some are double bonded to each other
Unsaturated fat
What are some examples of unsaturated or good fats
Fruit, vegetables, fish
Corn, olive, vegetable oils
Why are saturated fats unhealthy
They build up lipid deposits called plaques in the blood vessels that can lead to heart disease
A lipid molecule in which the carbon skeleton forms four fused rings
Steroid
What are 2 steroids that circulate in the body as chemical signals
Testosterone

Estrogen
Best known steroid is
Cholesterol
High levels of what steroid molecule that can cause cardiovascular disease is what?
Cholesterol
The word protein means what in Greek
First place
A polymer constructed of 20 kinds of monomers called amino acids
Proteins
What are hair, fur, and muscles made of
Proteins
What do proteins do
Responsible for function of organisms
Nurtient storage
Defend against microorganisms
Control chemical reactions
A monomer that makes up proteins
Amino acids
What part of the amino acid is different in each type of amino acid
Side group or R group
Cells create proteins by linking amino acids together into a chain called a
Polypeptide
Can amino acids funtion in simple form or must be in a special sequence
A functional protein must be in a sequence
An unfavorable change in temperature, pH, or environment can cause a protein to lose its shape. This process is called
Denaturation
What is one example of denaturation
When egg white turns from clear to white when cooked
What is needed to start a chemical reaction
Weaken chemical bonds in the reactant molecules
What is the "start-up" energy called to active a chemical reaction
Activation energy
Compounds that speed up chemcial reactions
Catalysts
What are the main catalysts of chemical reactions
Enzymes
Enzymes allow chemical reactions to occur at higher, lower, or normal temperatures
Normal temperature
How do enzymes work
Enzymes lower the energy required to that a reaction can proceed at normal temperature
A specific reactant acted upon by an enzyme is called the enzyme's
Substrate
The substrate fits into a particular region of the enzyme calle the
Active site
The name of most enzymes ends in
-ase