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51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
original sin
view that children are born into the world corrupted with an inclination toward evil
tabula rosa
Locke's view that children are born as "blank slates" and acquire their characteristics through experience
innate goodness
Rousseau's view that children are born inherently good
What are the characteristics of the Life-Span perspective?
Development is Lifelong, Multidimensional, Multidirectional, Plastic, Contextual, Multidisciplinary, and Involves Growth, Maintenance, and Regulation
Normative age-graded influences
biological nad sociocultural, environmental influences that are similar for individuals in a particular age group
Normative history-graded influences
environmental influences that are associated with history. These influences are common to people of a particular generation
Nonnormative life events
Unusual occurences that have a major impact on a person's life. The occurence, pattern, and sequence of these events are not applicable to many individuals
Prenatal Period
conception to birth
birth through 18-24 months. dependent on adults. language, symbolic thought, sensorimotor coordination, and social learning are beginning
Early Childhood
end of infancy to about 6 years. learn to become more self-sufficent, develop school readiness skills, spend time playing with peers.
Middle and Late Childhood
6-11 yrs old. learn reading, writing, and arithmetic. child learns achievement and self-control
transition from childhood to early adulthood. ages 10-12 to 18-22. rapid physical changes, pursuit of independence, logical thought, and time spent outside of family
Early adulthood
late teens/early 20s-30s. establish personal and economic independence, career development, selecting a mate, and starting a family.
Middle Adulthood
35-45 to 60s. expandin personal and social involvement and responsibility
Late Adulthood
60/70s-death. decreasing stregth and health, life review, retirement, and adjustment to new social roles.
nature vs. nurture
debate about the extent to which development is influenced by nature and by nurture. Nature refers to an organism's biological inheritance, nurture to its environmental experiences.
continuity-discontinuity issue
debate about the extent to which development involves gradual, cumulative change (continuity) or distinct stages (discontinuity)
Psychoanalytic Theories
development depends primarily on the unconscious mind and is heavily couched in emotion
Freud's Theory
personality has three structures: the id, the ego, and the superego. the id consists of instincts and has no contact with reality. The ego uses reasoning to make decisions. The superego considers whether something is right or wrong.
Freudian Psychosexual Stages
Oral: Birth to 1 1/2 yrs
Anal: 1 1/2 to 3 yrs
Phallic: 3 to 6 yrs
Latency: 6 to puberty
Genital: Puberty onward
Erikson's Eight Psychosocial Stages of Development
Trust vs Mistrust
Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt
Initiative vs Guilt
Industry vs Inferiority
Identity vs Identity Confusion
Intimacy vs Isolation
Generativity vs Stagnation
Integrity vs Despair
Cognitive Theories
emphasize thinking, reasoning, language, and other cognitive processes
Piaget's Cognitive Developmental Theory
children actively construct their understanding of the world and go through four stages of cognitive development.
Piaget's four stages of cognitive development
Concrete Operational
Formal Operational
Vygotsky's Sociocultural Cognitive Theory
emphasizes how culture and social interaction guide cognitive development
Behavioral and Social Cognitive Theories
development can be described in terms of the behaviors learned through interactions with the environment
Pavlov's Classical Conditioning
After a neutral stimulus has been paired with a stimulus that automatically produces a response, that response will be elicited by the previously neutral stimulus on its own.
Skinner's Operant Conditioning
the consequences of a behavior produce changes in the probability of the behavior's occurence. A behavior that is followed by a rewarding stimulus is more likely to recur, but a behavior follwed by a punishing stimulus is less likely to recur.
Social Cognitive Theory
behavior, environment, and person/cognitive factors are important in understanding development
Ethological Theory of Development
stresses that behavior is strongly influenced by biologym tied to evolution, and characterized by critical or sensitive periods
the rapid, innate learning within a limited critical period of time that involves attachment to the first moving object seen
Ecological theory
Bronfenbrenner's view that development is influenced by five environmental systems- microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, and chronosystem. These emphasize the role of social contexts in human development
natural selection
evolutionary process that favors individuals of a species that are best adapted to survive and reproduce
evolutionary psychology
emphasizes the importance of adaptation, reproduction, and "survival of the fittest" in shaping behavior
threadlike structures that contain DNA
a complex molecule that contains genetic information
units of hereditary information composed of DNA. Genes direct cells to reproduce themselves and manufacture the proteins that maintain life.
cellular reproduction in which the cell's nucleus duplicates itself with two new cells being formed, each containing the same DNA as the parent cell, arranged in the same 23 pairs of chromosomes
dominant-recessive principle
if one gene of a pair is dominant and one is recessive, the dominant gene exerts its effect.
Germinal Period
period of prenatal development that takes place in the first two weeks after conception. It includes the creation of the zygote, continued cell division, and the attachment of the zygote to the uterine wall
Embryonic Period
occurs two to eight weeks after conception. the rate of cell differentiation intensifies, support systems for the cells form, and organs appear.
Fetal Period
begins two months after conception and lasts for seven months, on average
any agent that causes a birth defect
frontal lobes
voluntary movement, thinking, personality, and intentionality or purpose
occipital lobes
temporal lobes
hearing, language, and memory
parietal lobes
registering spatial location, attention, and motor control
Cellular Clock Theory
Leonard Hayflick's theory that the maximum number of times human cells can divide is about 75 to 80. As we age, our cells have less capability to divide.
Free-Radical Theory
A microbiological theory of aging that states that people age because when their cells metabolize energy, they generate waste that includes unstable oxygen molecules, known as free radicals, that damage DNA and other cellular structures.
Hormonal Stress Therapy
aging in the body's hormonal system can lower resistance to stress and increase the likelihood of disease
Bio-Psycho-Social Health Model
the approach in which health is viewed in terms of a combination of biological, psychological, and social factors.