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49 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Why do I need to know this?
-Because the generation preceding you does not.

-Because technology is constantly changing.

-You will be expected to know it on some level.
Hardware
All of the physical parts of a computer.
Software
Organized collections of computer data.
Two major software categories
System- software that provides the basic non-task specific functions of the computer.

Application- software which is employed by users to accomplish specific tasks.
CPU
-Central Processing Unit

-Component of the computer that interprets and carries out the instructions in the software.
Motherboard
-Central or primary circuit board making up a computer system or other complex electronic system.
Front Side Bus
-Describing a CPU to system bus.

-Carries all information that passes from the CPU to other devices within the system.
RAM
-Random Access Memory

-Type of computer storage whose contents can be accessed in any order.
Hard Disk Drive
-Type of storage device.

-Contained in an airtight enclosure and incorporates:
circular platters
a spindle
read/write heads
read/write arms
electrical motors
integrated electronics
Peripheral
-Type of computer hardware that is added to the computer in order to expand its capabilities.
Firewire
-Personal computer and digital video serial bus interface standard.

-Released in 1995.
-Developed by Apple Computer.
-Defined in the IEEE 1394 standard.
USB
-Universal Serial Bus

-Serial bus standard for connecting devices to a computer.
ATA
-Advanced Technology Attachment

-Standard interface for connecting storage devices such as hard disk drives and CD-ROM drives inside personal computers.
SCSI/Scuzzy
-Small Computer System Interface

-Provides a standard means for transferring data between devices on a computer.
What is the OS responsible for?
The direct control and management of the hardware and basic system operations.
What is the system software's purpose?
Helps run the computer and separates it from application software which is focused on enabling the user to solve specific tasks.
What layer of sofware is the operating system loaded into?
-First layer.

-All other software loaded after it depends on this software to provide them with various common core services.
What are the two families of OS?
Microsoft & Unix-like
How did the Microsoft family originate?
Originated as a graphical layer on top of the original MS operating system MS-DOS.
What is the Unix-like operating system like?
Behaves similar to the UNIX system, while not necessarily conforming to or certifed to any version of UNIX specification.
What is UNIX?
-A portable, multi-task and multi-user operating system developed by a group at AT&T Bell Labs in the 1960's.

-More diverse than Windows, with several major sub-categories (e.g.- Linux).
What is the Apple Mac OS X?
A BSD variant.
Was the original Mac OS successful?
It was the first commercially successful operating systems which used a GUI.
How do you use older Mac OS applications?
Using Classic, which allows users to run Mac OS 9 within Mac OS X.
How was OS X created?
By combining-

-Darwin, an open source UNIX kernel based environment.
-With a GUI, called Aqua by Apple Computer.
What is a file format?
=A particular way to encode data for storage in a computer file.

-Represented by an extension of 2-4 letters onto the filename on most OS.
Why are extensions used?
Tells the operating system which program is executed by default when opening a file.
Bitmap/Raster
Consists of pixels that each have a corresponding red, green, and blue value that combine to determine the color displayed by that pixel.
Vector
Uses geometrical primitives such as points, lines, curves, and polygons to represent images in computer graphics (math).
Postscript
- .ps

-Page description language used primarily in the electronic and desktop publishing areas.

-Borders on the complexity of a separate programming language.

-Used to describe the contents of a printed page in a higher level than the actual ouput bitmap.
TIFF
-Tagged Image File Format

-Bitmap file format for images, created by Aldus for use with PostScript printing.

-Standard for high bit-depth (32).

-Widely used in Photoshop and can be directly manipulated by PostScript.
EPS
-Encapsulated PostScript

-PostScript file that describes a small vector graphic, as apposed to a whole page or set of pages.
JPEG
-Joint Photographic Experts Group.

-Commonly used standard method of compressing photographic images.

-Most common format for storing and transmitting pohtos on the WWW.

-Uses lossy compression.
GIF
-Graphics Interchange Format

-Bitmap image format that is widely used on the WWW for images and animations.

-L2W compression algorithm owned by CompuServ and Unisys, and they started charging royalties. Expired in 2003.
PNG
-Portable Network Graphics

-Created to replace the GIF

-Offers better compression and more features.
PICT
-Used primarily to exchange graphic information between various Macintosh applications.
What did Apple replace PICT with?
PDF
BMP
-Commonly used by Microsoft Windowsp grams, and the Windows operating system itself
PSD
-File format of Adobe Photoshop.

-Allows layering.

-Supported by very few programs other than PS.
AI
Vector format for Adobe Illustrator.
INDD
File format for Adobe InDesign.
PDF
-Portable Document Format

-Developed by Adobe Systems for representing documents that is independent of original software, hardware and OS.

-Describe documents comtaining any combination of text, graphics and images. (Combination of three technologies)

-Can be one or a bunch of pages, simple or complex...

-A cut-down form of PostScript for generating the layout and graphics.

-Can embed fonts.
Display
-Display, monitor, or screen that is a computer peripheral device capable of showing still or moving images generated by a computer and processed by the graphics card.

-Generally conform to one or more standards.
Display Types
-CRT- Cathrode Ray Tube
-LCD- Liquid crystal display
-Plasma display
-Projector
Resolution
-The number of pixels that can be displayed on the screen.

-Can be represented as a single number or as a pair of numbers.

-The more pixels you have to start off with, the better you are.

-Common: 640x480 VGA, 800x600 SVGA, 1024x768 XGA or XVGA.
Pixels
-One of the many tiny dots that make up the representation of a picture in a computer's memory.

-So small they appear to be a smooth image.
RGB
-Red, Green & Blue

-Can produce many of the colors between its black level and white point.

-Typical display hardware uses 24 bits of information for each pixel. 8 bits for each color, giving a range of 256 color values for each color.

-Approximately 16.7 colors can be reproduced.

-Additive, where colors are combined to create other colors. Colors chosen because each one corresponds roughtly with one of th three types of color-sensitive cones in the human eye.
CMYK
-Subractive color model used in color printing.

-Cyan, Magenta, Yellow & Key (black)

-Works through light absorption. The colors that are seen are from the part of light that is not absorbed.

-4 color printing uses a fourth black ink in addition to the subtrative primaries. (key).
Color Perception
-The color on the screen is often different from the color of the same object on a printout.

-RBG color is made by the projection of light while CMYK works by the absorption of it.