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104 Cards in this Set

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A word that shows action, (runs, hits, slides), or shows state of being, (is, are, was, were, am.)
Find the Verb.

1. He ran around the block.
2. You are my friend.
1. ran (action)

2. are (state of being)
Infinitive Phrase
The efforts (subject) to get her elected (infinitive phrase) succeeded (Verb)

The sentence can stand alone without the infinitive phrase.
A noun or pronoun that performs the verb.

To find the subject and verb always find the verb first. Then ask who or what performed the verb.

The subject is the focus of the sentence. It either does something, has something done to it, or it is described in some way.
Find the Subject and verb.

A bouquet of yellow flowers will lend color and fragrance to the room.
Subject (bouquet)

Verb ( lend)
Find the subject and verb:

The jet engine passed inspection.
Engine (subj)

Passed (verb)

jet is not part of the the subject it is an adjective.
Find the subject and verb:

From the ceiling hung the chandelier.
Chandelier (subj)

Hung (verb)
Subject Verb Agreement
The rule is that a singular subject takes a singular verb and a plural subject takes a plural verb. The trick is knowing whether the subject is singular or plural.

In order to determine if a verb is singular or plural, think of which you would use with he and which you would use with they.
subject verb agreement

my aunt or my uncle (is/are) ariving by train today.
Is arriving.

Two singular subjects connected by or/ nor, either/neither recieve a singular verb.
The book or the magazines are on the shelf.
when a singular and a plural subject are joined by or/nor put the plural subject last and use the plural verb.
The politician along with the newsman IS expected shortly.

Excitement as well as nervousness IS the cause of her shaking.
Sometimes the singular subjects are seperated by along with, as well as, besides, or not. Ignore these expressions when determining singular or plural verbs.
Everyone of the cakes IS gone.
The pronouns each, everyone, everybody, anyone, anybody, someone, and somebody are singular and require singular verbs.
Neither of them IS available.

Either of us IS capable of doing the job.
When either or neither are the subjects, they always take singular verbs.
Ten dollars IS a lot to pay.

Five years IS the maximum.
Use a singular verb with sums of money and time expressions.
1.Salma is the scientist who WRITES the reports.

2.He is one of the men who DO the work.
When who, that, which, is the subject of the verb in the middle of a sentence the verb becomes singular or plural depending on the noun directly in front of them.

1. scientist (singular) writes(singular)
2. Men (plural) do (plural)
The staff IS in a meeting.

The staff ARE in disagreement.
1. staff is a unit of people doing the same thing therefore the verb is singular

2. Staff is a unit of individuals doing different things therefore the verb is plural.
a word that takes the place of a noun. Pronouns can be in one of three cases: Subject, Object, or Possessive.
Subject Pronouns
Subject pronouns are used when a pronoun is the subject of the sentence.

He, She, It (both), We, They, I, You (both), Who/ever
It could have been they/them.

It is just I/me at the door.
1. they
2. I
Object Pronouns
Jean (sub) talked to him (obj)

Are you (subject) talking to me (object)

OBject Pronouns: Me, him, her, them, us, you (both), it (both)
a group of words containing a subject and a verb.
Comparative Statements using than or as.

Dave is as smart as she/her
Steve is taller than I/me
Mentally complete the sentence.

Remember you are comparing so there are two SUBJECTS and no objects.

1. Dave is as smart as SHE is.
2. Steve is taller than I am.
Possesive Pronouns
show ownership and never need apostropohes.

Possessive Pronouns: mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, theirs.
Not one of the neighbors offered his help.

None of the neighbors offered their support.
1. one of the neighbors is singular therefore HIS support

2. None of the neighbors, neighbors is a group, their support.
Reflexive Pronouns
myself, himself, herself, itself, themselves, ourselves, yourselves, yourself.... should only be used when they refer back to another word in the sentence.
My brother and myself/I did it.

Please give it to John or myself/I.
1. my brother and I. myself requires that it refer back to someone mentioned previously.

2. I. SAA
Who Vs Whom
Who= subject
Whom= object

he = who
him= whom

Use the him / he method to decide.
Who/Whom wrote the letter?

For Who/Whom should i vote?
Who. He wrote the letter. He is the subject, he performs the verb

Whom. Should i vote for him. I is the subject I performs the verb.
We all know who/whom pulled the prank

We want to know on who/whom the prank was pulled.
who. HE pulled the prank.

Whom. The prank was pulled on him.
Whoever Vs Whomever
Used for Two clause sentences.

Whoever= subject
Whomever = Object

him+he = whoever

him+him= whomever
We will hire whoever/whomever you recommend.

we will hire whoever/whomever is the most qualified.
Whomever: We will hire HIM. You recommend HIM.

Whoever: We will hire HIM. He is most qualified.
a meaningful morphological unit of language that cannot be further divided

the smallest unit of language.
universal grammar
a set of principles that apply to all
languages and are unconsciously
accessible to every human
language user
any of the perceptually distinct units of sound in a specified language that distinguish one word from another, for example p, b, d, and t in the English words pad, pat, bad, and bat.
the smallest meaningful contrastive unit in a writing system.
the development of a language through
the merging of two or more different languages.
different sentance structures are used to make a request, to make an assertion, and to ask aquestion. Pragmatic theory focuses on the speaker's intention, as opposed to the literal meaning of an utterance.
1 the conventional spelling system of a language.
• the study of spelling and how letters combine to represent sounds and form words.
appositional phrase
identifies or describes a nearby noun,
as illustrated in the way that "my favorite writer" identifies Gabriel García Márquez.
embedded appositional phrase
is set within the body of the sentence rather than coming at the beginning or the end.
noncount noun, noncountable noun or mass noun,
things that cannot be divided without giving a measurement to clarify.
ie water. you must say an ounce of water. you cannot say a water.

you can say one chair, they are countable wihout needing to add a unit of measure.
also known as modal auxiliary verbs, including (can, would, and must) that are characteristically used with other verbs to express mood or tense or level of urgency.
Who, That, and Which
"who" refers to individual persons,
That and which, refer to groups of things.

Anya is the one WHO rescued the bird.

Lokua is on the team THAT won first place.
THAT introduces essential clauses.
I do not trust editorials THAT claim racial differences in intelligence.

The THAT identifies which editorials are not trusted.
WHICH introduces non essential clauses.
The editorial claiming racial differences in intelligence, WHICH appeared in Sunday's paper, upset me.

WHICH, introduces a nonessential clause.

NOTE: nonessential clauses are surrounded by commas. Essential clauses are not.
If, THIS, THAT, THESE, THOSE, has already introduced an essential clause in the sentence, use which to introduce the next clause, whether it is essential or not.

Remember the comma rule.
THAT is a decision WHICH you must live with for the rest of your life.

THOSE ideas, WHICH we've discussed thoroughly enough, do not need to be addressed again.

Often it is better to just streamline your sentences and leave out the which.

The ideas we have discussed throughly do not need to be addressed again.
words that describe nouns or pronouns.
The can come before the word they describe: That is a cute puppy.

or they can come after the word they describe. That puppy is cute.
modify everything but nouns and pronouns.

They modify adjectives, verbs, and other adverbs.

A word is an adverb if it answers, how, when, or where.

Example: He speaks SLOWLY. answers the question, How does he speak.

HE speaks VERY slowly, answers how slowly does he speak.
For senses you do not ask the question how to determine adding ly to the end.

Instead, add the ly if the verb is being used actively.
Roses smell sweet.
Do roses actively smell? No. No ly.

The woman looked angry.
THe woman is not actively looking with her eyes, she appears angry, no ly.

The woman looked angrily at the paint.
she is actively looking with her eyes so add the ly.
Good is an adjective.
Well is an adverb.
You did a GOOD job.
describes the job you did.

You did the job well.
describes HOW you did the job.

You smell GOOD today.
describes the odor
You smell well/good for someone with a cold.

You smell well/good today.
The subject (the sick person) is actively smelling with their nose. adverb.

you are describing the odor not actively smelling with your nose.
When refering to health, always use well.
i do not feel well.

you do not look well today.
She spoke quik/quickly.

She spoke more quickly/quicker than he did.
quickly. modifying the verb. adverb.

more quickly. modifying verb.
talk quieter/ more quietly.
more quietly. adverb. modifying volume.
When this, that, these, those, are followed by a noun, they become adjectives, (they are describing the noun by distinguising it) if no noun follows them, they are pronouns.
This house is for sale.
This is an adjective.

This is for sale.
This is a pronoun.
Between is used for two.

Among is used for three or more.
Divide the candy between the two of you.

Divide the candy among the three of you.
Into implies an entrance

in does not.
Sofia walked into the house.

Sofia is in the house.
Effect vs Affect
Use effect when you mean, cause or caused results.

Use affect when you mean to INFLUENCE rather than actually cause.
I was affected/effected by the woman.

used for influenced.
What effect/affect did the speach have?

Use effect when you mean result.
He effected/affected a commotion

He CAUSED a commotion.
How did the budget cuts affect/effect your staffing?

She showed little affect/effect when told she won the lottery.

Affect is used as a noun to mean emotional expression.
Use effect whenever any of the following proceed it.

a, an, any, the, take, into, no.
The book had A long lasting EFFECT on me.

Has the medicine produced ANY noticeable EFFECTS?
Lie VS Lay

To Recline
Present: lie lying,

Past: LAY

with has, had, have: LAIN
Lie VS Lay

To place or put something
present: lay, laying

past: laid

have, had, has,: laid
lie vs lay

To tell a falsehood.
present: lie, lying

past: lied

has, have, had: lied
Examples in the Present Tense
I like to lie down.

I am lying down for a nap today

The hens lay eggs

The hen is laying eggs

I am tempted to lie about my age

I am not lying about my age
Examples in the Past tense
I lay down for a nap yesterday.

The hen laid two eggs yesterday.

He lied on the witness stand.
Examples with a Partciciple (a form of have)
I have lain down for a nap every day this week.

The hen has laid two eggs every day this week.

He has lied each day on teh witness stand.
Concrete Language
Concrete: California had very cold weather last week.

Vague: The weather was of an extreme nature on the west coast.
Active Voice
Active voice means that the subject is performing the verb.

Active: Barry hit the ball.

Passive: The ball was hit.

In the passive we dont even know who hit the ball.
Avoid overusing there is, there are, it is, it was, etc.
Bad: There is a case of aids that was reported in the newspaper.

Okay: A case of aids was reported in the newspaper.

Best(active voice) The newspaper reported an aids case.
Dangling Modifiers are BAD.

If you begin a sentence with an action, place the actor immediately after or you will have a dangling modifier.
INCORRECT: While walking across the street, the bus hit her.

This sentence says that the bus was walking across the street.

CORRECT: While walking across the street, she was hit by a bus.
She was hit by a bus while walking across the street.
A gerund is a verbal that ends in -ing and functions as a noun. The term verbal indicates that a gerund, like the other two kinds of verbals, is based on a verb and therefore expresses action or a state of being. However, since a gerund functions as a noun, it occupies some positions in a sentence that a noun ordinarily would.

Traveling (gerund) might satisfy your desire for new experiences.
Distracting Parenthetical nouns.
Heather and her daughter ARE taking classes.

Heather, as well as her daughter, IS taking classes.

When the subjects are compound such as in the first sample, they take the plural verb form, when the parenthetical statement is there, without the AND, it takes the singular form of the verb.
the part of a sentence or clause containing a verb and stating something about the subject (e.g., went home in John went home) : [as adj. ] predicate adjective.
Beware of subject verb agreement when the sentence's structure is inverted:
DO your brother and his friend need a place to stay?

(compound subject (and) both subj, singular; verb plural.)
Walking purposefully to the house WAS/WERE the trainer and this assistants
Compound subject,(and) one part singular, one part plural, verb plural.
There are/is a desk and ten chairs in the room.

compound subject, one singular, one plural, plural verb,
There is/are no desk or chairs to be found anywhere.
alternative subject (OR) Verb agreement goes to the one closest to the verb, which is desk, therefore singular verb.
Ellipsis Marks

. . .
If words are ommited from a quote.
If the quote being used is beging or ending midsentence. (Do not use them if you are presenting selected exerpts or obvios sentence fragments.) Always follow with the proper punctuation even if it is a period, making four dots.

Indicating hesitation or trailing off speach

Laid back, musing, or mysterious speach or statements.

Indicating a set of people saying parts of the same sentence.
How to properly quote inside a text.
Punctuation marks such as periods, commas, and semicolons should appear after the parenthetical citation. Question marks and exclamation points should appear within the quotation marks if they are a part of the quoted passage but after the parenthetical citation if they are a part of your text. For example:
According to some, dreams express "profound aspects of personality" (Foulkes 184), though others disagree.
According to Foulkes's study, dreams may express "profound aspects of personality" (184).
Is it possible that dreams may express "profound aspects of personality" (Foulkes 184)?

Mark breaks in short quotations of verse with a slash, /, at the end of each line of verse:
Cullen concludes, "Of all the things that happened there/ That's all I remember" (11-12).
Adding or Omitting Words In Quotations
If you add a word or words in a quotation, you should put brackets around the words to indicate that they are not part of the original text.
Jan Harold Brunvand, in an essay on urban legends, states: "some individuals [who retell urban legends] make a point of learning every rumor or tale" (78).
If you omit a word or words from a quotation, you should indicate the deleted word or word by using ellipsis marks, which are three periods (...) preceded and followed by a space. For example:
In an essay on urban legends, Jan Harold Brunvand notes that "some individuals make a point of learning every recent rumor or tale ... and in a short time a lively exchange of details occurs" (78).
More on in text quoting
For quotations, a set-off introduction uses a comma or colon and a capital letter: 
William Harrington says, "This object is a tree." 
Janet Summers notes: "Harrington can recognize a tree." 
Trudy Smith has aptly remarked, "Another example is all this is."
A built-in introduction uses "that" with no comma or colon and no capital letter (unless a proper name is used). Informal introductions are good for quotations that begin in mid-sentence: 
William Harrington says that the object "is a tree." 
Janet Summers notes that he "can recognize a tree."
(Note that there is no correct mixture of the two styles--do not use "that" followed by a comma and capital letter of the first word, for example.) 

WRONG: Ted Freen says that, "You should not imitate this example." 

RIGHT: Brown says that "invention is the mother of necessity" (326).
Theme: a subject of a discourse, discussion, piece of writing, or artistic composition
Genre: one of the categories that artistic works of all kinds can be divided into on the basis of form, style, or subject matter. For example, detective novels are a genre of fiction.
Alliteration is the recurrence of initial consonant sounds.
2. Allusion is a short, informal reference to a famous person or event:
If you take his parking place, you can expect World War II all over again.
Plan ahead: it wasn't raining when Noah built the ark.
3. Analogy: a comparison between two things that are similar in some respects, often used to help explain something or make it easier to understand
4. Antithesis: establishes a clear, contrasting relationship between two ideas by joining them together or juxtaposing them, often in parallel structure ex Success makes men proud; failure makes them wise.
6. Aporia: expresses doubt about an idea or conclusion. Among its several uses are the suggesting of alternatives without making a commitment to either or any:I am not sure whether to side with those who say that higher taxes reduce inflation or with those who say that higher taxes increase inflation.
I have never been able to decide whether I really approve of dress codes, because extremism seems to reign both with them and without them.
Such a statement of uncertainty can tie off a piece of discussion you do not have time to pursue, or it could begin an examination of the issue, and lead you into a conclusion resolving your doubt.
7. Anaphora is the repetition of the same word or words at the beginning of successive phrases, clauses, or sentences, commonly in conjunction with climax and with parallelism: Ex: To think on death it is a misery,/ To think on life it is a vanity;/ To think on the world verily it is,/ To think that here man hath no perfect bliss.
Parallelism is recurrent syntactical similarity. Several parts of a sentence or several sentences are expressed similarly to show that the ideas in the parts or sentences are equal in importance. Parallelism also adds balance and rhythm and, most importantly, clarity to the sentence. Ex: Ferocious dragons breathing fire and wicked sorcerers casting their spells do their harm by night in the forest of Darkness.
Epistrophe (also called antistrophe)
8. Epistrophe (also called antistrophe) forms the counterpart to anaphora, because the repetition of the same word or words comes at the end of successive phrases, clauses, or sentences: EX: Where affections bear rule, there reason is subdued, honesty is subdued, good will is subdued, and all things else that withstand evil, for ever are subdued.
9. Epithet is an adjective or adjective phrase appropriately qualifying a subject (noun) by naming a key or important characteristic of the subject, as in "laughing happiness," "sneering contempt," "untroubled sleep," "peaceful dawn," and "lifegiving water." Sometimes a metaphorical epithet will be good to use, as in "lazy road," "tired landscape," "smirking billboards," "anxious apple." Aptness and brilliant effectiveness are the key considerations in choosing epithets. Be fresh, seek striking images, pay attention to connotative value.
10. Eponym substitutes for a particular attribute the name of a famous person recognized for that attribute. By their nature eponyms often border on the cliche, but many times they can be useful without seeming too obviously trite. Finding new or infrequently used ones is best, though hard, because the name-and-attribute relationship needs to be well established. EX: Is he smart? Why, the man is an Einstein. Has he suffered? This poor Job can tell you himself. That little Caesar is fooling nobody.
11. Hyperbole, the counterpart of understatement, deliberately exaggerates conditions for emphasis or effect. In formal writing the hyperbole must be clearly intended as an exaggeration, and should be carefully restricted. That is, do not exaggerate everything, but treat hyperbole like an exclamation point, to be used only once a year
12. Hypophora consists of raising one or more questions and then proceeding to answer them, usually at some length. A common usage is to ask the question at the beginning of a paragraph and then use that paragraph to answer it: EX: There is a striking and basic difference between a man's ability to imagine something and an animal's failure. . . . Where is it that the animal falls short? We get a clue to the answer, I think, when Hunter tells us
Metaphor compares two different things by speaking of one in terms of the other. Unlike a simile or analogy, metaphor asserts that one thing is another thing, not just that one is like another. Very frequently a metaphor is invoked by the to be verb:
Ex: Affliction then is ours; / We are the trees whom shaking fastens more.
13. Onomatopoeia is the use of words whose pronunciation imitates the sound the word describes. "Buzz," for example, when spoken is intended to resemble the sound of a flying insect. Other examples include these: slam, pow, screech, whirr, crush, sizzle,
Personification represents an animal or inanimate object as having human attributes--attributes of form, character, feelings, behavior, and so on. Ideas and abstractions can also be personified. EX: The ship began to creak and protest as it struggled against the rising sea.
Simile is a comparison between two different things that resemble each other in at least one way. Uses “like” or “as” EX The soul in the body is like a bird in a cage.
What is a well written answer to an essay question?
Well Focused
Be sure to answer the question completely, that is, answer all parts of the question. Avoid "padding." A lot of rambling and ranting is a sure sign that the writer doesn't really know what the right answer is and hopes that somehow, something in that overgrown jungle of words was the correct answer.
Well Organized
Don't write in a haphazard "think-as-you-go" manner. Do some planning and be sure that what you write has a clearly marked introduction which both states the point(s) you are going to make and also, if possible, how you are going to proceed. In addition, the essay should have a clearly indicated conclusion that summarizes the material covered and emphasizes your thesis or main point.
Well Supported
Do not just assert something is true, prove it. What facts, figures, examples, tests, etc. prove your point? In many cases, the difference between an A and a B as a grade is due to the effective use of supporting evidence.
Well Packaged
People who do not use conventions of language are thought of by their readers as less competent and less educated.