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36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
def: punishment
punishment should fit the crime
def: deterrence
when potential criminals are deterred because penalties outweigh the crime
def: rehabilitation
turn criminals into law-abiding citizens
def: confinement
keeps criminals from further endangering society
def: intensive sanctions
an individual is not incarcerated but instead is closely monitored and must adhere to a structured schedule involving work and treatment programmes
def: exclusionary rule
evidence that is acquired in a manner that violates an individual's cpnstitutional rights may not be used by prosecution
what is the crime to accounts for the most arrests?
drunk driving
whats the profile of typical drunk driver?
white male over 25 years old
what percent did schools pay for education in 2000
def: equalization of state school aid
the distribution of state assistance to local school districts is based on need....poorer districts receive more aid
def: charter school
autonomous educational institutions within the public school system that operate through contracts that give them greater flexibility.
def: voucher programs
provide taxpayer supported financial assistance to needy parents who wish to send their students to private schools
def: privitization
the practice of turning school administration over to for-profit private enterprises
def: value added assesment
practice of measuring knowledge and sill before students begin an educational program and again after they finis, then assess the greatness
def: social security
both employees and employers contribute to provide retirement benefits
def: medicare
a federal program,both employers and employees contribute to provide health coverage during retirement years
def: unemplyment compensation
provides cash benefits to laid-off workers, employers contribute to pay for benefits and finance the administration
def: worker's compensation
income and health benefits for those injured on the job get it?
def: public assistance program
serves the needy, cash assistance, medical care, food stampsm housingg assistance.
def: supplemental security income
provides cash assistance to the elderly, blind, and disabled
def: temporary assistance to needy families TANF
families with dependent children through federal block grants
def: workfare
requires recipients to work for their benefits
def: medicaid
a joint federal-state program that provides health care to the needy
what are the 4 provisions of the clean air act of 1970
1. air quality standards are applied antionwide
2. required states to show efforts made to comply
3. required auto manufacturers to reduce emissions by 90 % for all 1975 models or face 10k per vehicle fine
4. gave citizens right to sue polluters
def: supply-side economic develpment policy
policy tools used to attract economic development within boundires, using tax abatements, loans, and lesser regulations
demand-side development policy
incouragiu private ubterests to develop new products ad services to respond to emerging needs
def: environmental justice
less income doesnt mean mor epollution
def: yield
tax rate x base rate
def: elasticity
sales vs property
ease of administration
low collection costs, ability to collect
effects on economic behaviour
collect revenues without distorting behaviour
political acceptability
taxation should be fair
progressive tax
tax increases and income increases
porportional tax
same tax rate for all elvels
inversely related to income