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59 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Amicus Curiae Brief
A "friend of the court" brief, filed by an individual or organization to present arguments in addition to those presented by immediate parties to a case
attentive public
Those citizens who follow public affairs carefully.
Australian ballot
A secret ballot printed by the state
A tactic of political action committees PAC whereby they collect contributions from like-minded individuals limited to $2000 each and present them to a candidate or political party as a bundle, thus increasing their influence.
candidate appeal
How voters feel about a candidate's background, personality, leadership ability, and other personal qualities
A meeting of local party members to choose party officials or candidates for public office to decide the platform.
closed primary
Primary election in which only persons registered in the party holding the primary may vote.
closed shop
A company with a labor agreement under which union membership is a condition of employment
cross-cutting cleavages
Divisions within society that cut across demographic categories to produce groups that are more heterogeneous or different.
crossover voting
Voting by a member of one party for a candidate of another party
Weakening of partisan preferences that points to a rejection of oath major parties and a rise in the number of Independents.
The study of the characteristics of populations.
direct primary
Election in which voters choose party nominees.
divided government
Governance divided between the parties, especially when one holds the presidency and the other controls one or both houses of Congress.
A social division based on national origin, religion, language, and often race.
Belief in the superiority of one's nation or ethnic group.
A term used by the founders of this country to refer to political parties and special interests or interest groups.
Federal Register
Official document, published every weekday, that lists the new and proposed regulations of executive departments and regulatory agencies
free rider
An individual who does not join a group representing his or her interests yet receives the benefit of the influence the group achieves.
gender gap
The difference between the political opinions or political behavior of men and of women.
gross domestic product GDP
The total output of all economic activity in the nations, including goods and services.
Period at the beginning of a new President's term during which the president enjoys generally positive relations with the press and Congress, usually lasting about six months.
interest group
A collection of people who share some common interest or attitude and seek to influence government for specific ends.
iron triangle
A mutually supporting relationship among interest groups, congressional committees and subcommittees and government agencies that share a common policy concern
issue advocacy
Promoting a particular position on an issue, paid for by interest groups or individuals but not candidatures. Much issue advocacy is often electioneering for or against a candidate, and until 2004 had not been subject to any regulation.
Keynesian economics
Theory based on the principles of John Maynard Keynes, stating that government spending should increase during business slums and be curbed during booms.
laissez-faire economics
Theory that opposes governmental interference in economic affairs beyond what is necessary to protect life and property.
Engaging in activities aimed at influencing public officials, especially legislators and policies they enact.
A person who is employed by and acts for an organized interest group or corporation to try to influence policy decisions and positions in the executive and legislative branch.
manifest destiny
A notion held by nineteenth-century Americans that the Untied States was destined to rule the continent, from the Atlantic to the Pacific.
minor party
A small political party that rises and falls with a charismatic candidate or if composed of ideologies on the right or left and usually persists over time; also called a third party.
A large body of people interested in a common issue, idea, or concern that is of continuing significance and who are willing to take action. Movements seek to change attitudes or institutions, not just policies.
national party convention
A national meeting of delegates elected in primaries, caucuses, or state conventions who assemble once every four years to nominate candidates for president and vice president, ratify the party platform, elect officers, and adopt rules.
nonpartisan election
A local or judicial election in which candidates are not selected or endorsed by political parties and party affiliation is not listed on ballots
office block ballot
Ballot on which all candidates are listed under the office for which they are running making split-ticket voting easier.
open primary
Primary election in which any voter, regardless of party, may vote.
open shop
A company with a labor agreement under which union membership cannot be required as a condition of employment
party column ballot
Type of ballot that encourages party-line voting by listing all of a party's candidates in a column under the party name.
party convention
A meeting of party delegates to vote on matters of policy and in some cases to select party candidates for public office
party identification
An informal and subjective affiliation with a political party that most people acquire in childhood
party registration
The act of declaring party affiliation; required by some states when one registers to vote.
The dispensing of government jobs to persons who belong to the winning political party
political action committee PAC
The political arm of an interest group that is legally entitled to raise funds on a voluntary basis from members, stockholders, or employees in order to contribute funds to favored candidates or political parties.
political party
An organization that seeks political power by electing people to office so that its positions and philosophy become public policy.
political predisposition
A characteristic of individuals that is predictive of political behavior
political socialization
The process, most notably in families and schools, by which we develop our political attitudes, values, and beliefs.
political socialization
The process, most notably in families and schools, by which we develop our political attitudes, values and beliefs.
proportional representation
An election system in which each party running receives the proportion of legislative seats corresponding to its proportion of the vote.
public opinion
The distribution of individual preferences for or evaluations of a given issue, candidate or institution with a specific population.
quid pro quo
Something given with the expectation of receiving something in return.
a grouping of human beings with distinctive characteristics determined by genetic inheritance.
realigning election
An election during periods of expanded suffrage an change in the economy and society that proves to be a turning point, redefining the agenda of politics and the alignment of voters within parties.
reinforcing cleavages
Divisions with society that reinforce one another, making groups more homogeneous or similar.
revolving door
Employment cycle in which individuals who work for governmental agencies regulating interests eventually end up working for interest groups or business with the same policy concern.
socioeconomic status SES
A division of population based on occupation, income, and education.
soft money
Money raised in unlimited amounts by political parties for party-building purposes. Now largely illegal except for limited contribution to state and local parties for voter registration and get-out-the-vote efforts.
the proportion of the voting-age public that votes, sometimes defined as the number of registered voters that vote.
voter registration
system designed to reduce voter fraud by limiting voting to those who have established eligibility by submitting the proper form.
winner-take-all system
An election system in which the candidate with he most votes wins.