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187 Cards in this Set

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bicameral legislature
divided into two houses in the US Congress and the state legislatures are bicameral except Nebraska (unicameral)
apportionment
the proportional process of allotting congressional seats to each state following the decennial census
redistricting
the redrawing of congressional districts to reflect increases or decreases in seats allowed to the states, as well as population shifts within a state
bill
a proposed law
impeachment
the power delegated to the house of reps in the constitution to charge the president, vice president or other civil officers including federal judges with treason, bribery, other high crimes and misdemeanors. first step in the constutitutional process of removing such government officials from office.
speaker of the house
the only officer of the house of reps specifically mentioned in the constitution: elected at the beginning of each new congress by entire house, traditionally a member of the majority party
majority party
political party in each house of congress with most members
minority party
political party in eaach house of congress with the second most members
party caucus or confrence
a formal gathering of all party members
majority leader
elected leader of the party controlling the most seats in the house of reps or teh senate, is second in authority to hte speaker of the house and in the senate and is regarded as the most powerful member
minority leader
elected leader of the party with 2nd highest number of elected reps. in the house of reps in the senate
whip
one of the several reps. who keep close contact with all members and take nose counts on key votes, prepare summaries of bills, and in general act as communication links within the party
standing committee
committee to which the proposed bills are referred
joint committee
includes members from both houses of congress, conducts investigation or special studies
conference committee
joing committee created to iron out differences between the senate and house versions of a specific piece of legislature
select (special) committee
temporary committee appointed for specific purpose such as conducting a special investigation or study
discharge petition
petition that gives a majority of the house of reps the authority to bring an issue to the floor in the face of committee inaction
pork
legistlation that allows representatives to bring home the bacon to their districts in the form of public works programs, military bases, or other programs designed to benefit their district directly
seniority
times of continuious service on a committee
incumbency
the fact that being in office helps a person stay in office because of a variety of benefits that go with that position
trustee
role played by electeed representatives who listen to contuitents opinions and then use their best judgment to make final decisions
delegate
role played by elected representaives who vote the way their constituents would want them to, regardless of their own opinions
politico
roled played by elected representatives who act as trustees or as delegates, depending on the issue
divided government
the political condition in which different political parties control the white house/congress
logrolling
vote trading, voting yeah to support a collegue's bill in return for promise of future support
hold
a tactic by which a senator asks to be informed before a particular bill is brought to the floor. this stops the bill from coming to the floor until the hold is removed.
filibuster
a formal way of halting action on a bill by means of long speeches of unlimited debate in teh senate
cloture
mechanism requiring sixty senators to vote to cut off the debate
veto
formal constitutional authority of the president to reject a bill passed by both houses of the legistlative body, thus preventing their becoming law without further congressional activity
pocket veto
if congress adjourns during the ten days that the president has to consider the bill passed by both houses of congress, without the president's signature, the bill is considered vetoed
oversight
congressional review of the activities of an agency, department, or office
congressional review
a process whereby congress can nullify agency regulations by a joing resolution of legislative disapproval
war powers act
passed by congress in 1973, the president is limited to the deployment of troops oversease to a sixty day period in peacetime (which can be extended for an extra thirty days to permit withdrawal) unless congress explicitly gives its approval for a longer time
senatorial courtesy
a process by which presidents when selecting district court judges, def to the senator in whose state the vacancy occurs
22nd amendment
adopted in 1951, prevents a persident from serving more than the two terms or more than ten years if he came to office v ia the death of impeachment of his predecessor
impeachment
the power delegated to the house of reps in the constitution to charge the president, vice president or other "civil officers" including federal judges with treason, bribery or other high crimes and misdemeanors. this is the first step in the constitutional prcoess of removing such government officials from office
executive privledge
an implied presidental power that allows the president to refuse to disclose information regarding confidential conversations or national security to congress or the judiciary
us vs. nixon (1974)
key supreme court ruling on power of the president finding that there is no absolute constitutional executive privlege to allow a president to refuse to comply with a court order to produce information needed in a criminal trial
25th amendment
adopted in the 1967 to establish procedures for filling vacancies in the office of president and vice president as well as providing for procedures to deal with the disability of a president
cabinet
the formal body of the presidental advisers who head hte 15 executive departments. presidents often add others in this body of formal advisors.
executive agreement
formal government agreement entered into by the president that does not require the advice and consent of the us senate
veto power
the formal constitutional authority of the president to reject bills passed by both houses of congress, this preventing them becoming law without further congressional action
line item veto
the authority o a chief executive to delete part of a bill passed by the legislature that involves taxing or spending. the legislature may overide a veto, usually with a 2/3 majority of each chamber.
war powers act
passed by the congress in 1973, the president is limited in the deployment of troops overseas to a sixty day period in peacetime (which can be extended for an extra thirty days to permit withdrawal) unless congress explicitly gives its approval for a longer period
pardon
an executive grant providing restoration of all rights and privleges of citizenship to a specific individiaul charged or convicted of a crime
pardon
an executive grant providing restoration of all rights and privleges of citizenship to a specific individual charged or convicted of a crime
war powers act
passed by congress in 1973: the president is limited to the deployment of troops overseas to a sixty day period in peacetime unless congress explicitily gives its approval for a longer period
inherent powers
powers of the president that can be derived or inferred from specific powers in the constitution
new deal
the name given to the program of relief, recovey, reform begun by franklin d. roosevelt in 1933 to bring the united states out of the great depression
executive office of the president
establishment created in 1939 to help the president to oversee the executive branch bureaucracy
patronage
jobs, grants, or other special favors that are given as rewards to friends and political allies for their support
office of management and budget (omb)
the office that preprares the president's annual budget proposal, reviews the budget and programs of the executive departments, supplies economic forecasts, and conducts detailed analysis of proposed buills ansd agency rules
executive order
a rule or regulation issued by a president that has the effect of law. all executive orders must be published in the federal register.
bureaucracy
a set of complex hierarchial departments, agencies, commisions, and their staffs that exist to help a chief executive officer carry out his or her duties. bureaucracies may be private organizations of governmental units
patronage
jobs, grants or other speical favors that are given as rewards to friends and political allies for their support
pendleton act
reform measure that created the civil service comission to administer a partial meriot system. the act classified the federal service by grades, to which appointments were made based on the results of the competitive examination. it made me illegal for federal political appointees to be required to contribute to a particular political party
civil service system
the system created by civil service laws by which many appointments law to the federal bereaucracy
merit system
the system to which federal civil service jobs are classified into grades or levels, to which appointment are made on the basis of performance on competitive examinations
independent regulatory comission
an agency created by congress that is generally concerned with a specific aspect of the economy
hatch act
law enacted in 1939 to prohibit civil servants from taking activist roles in partisan campaigns. this act prohibited federal employees from making political contributions, working for a particular party, or campaigning for a particular candidate
federal employees political activities act
1993 liberalization of the hatch act. federal employees are now allowed to run for office in nonpartisan elections and to contribute money to campaign in partisan elections.
departments
major administrative units with responsibility for a broad area of government operations. departmental status usually indicated a partmanent national interest in a particular governmental function, such as defense, commerce, or agriculture.
government corporations
buisnesses established by congress that perform functions that could be provided by private buisnesses (such as us postal service)
independent executive agencies
government units that closely resemble a cabinet department but have a narrower area of responsibility such as the CIA and are not part of any cabinet department
implementation
the process by which a law or policy is put into operation by the bureaucracy
iron triangles
the relatively stable relationships and patterns of interactions that occur among an agency, interest group, and congressional comittees or subcomittees
issue networks
the loose and informal relationships that exist among a large number of actors who work in broad policy areas
interagency councils
working groups created to facilitate coordination of a policy making and implementations across a host of governmental agencies
administrative discretion
the ability of bureaucrats to make choices concerning the best way to implement congressional intentions
rule making
a quaisi legislative administratiive process that has the characteristics of a legislative act
regulations
rules that govern the operation of a particular government program that have the force of law
administrative adjudication
a quasi judicial process in which bureaucratic agency settles disputes between two parties in a manner similiar to the way courts resolve disputes
executive orders
roles or regulations issued by the president that have the effect of law. all executive orders must be published in the federal registar.
spoils system
the firing of public office holders of a defeated political party and their replacmenet with loyalists of the newly elected party
public opinion
what the public thinks about a particular issue or set of issues at any point in time
public opinion polls
interviews or surveys with samples of citizens that are used to estimate the feelings and beliefs of the entire population
straw polls
unscientific surveys used to gauge public opinion on a variety of issues and policies
political socialization
the process through which an individual acquires particular political orientations: the learning process by which people can acquire their political beliefs and values
political ideology
the coherent set of valuesa nd beliefs about the purpose and scope of government held by groups and individuals
random sampling
a method of poll selection that gives each person in a group the same chance of being selected
stratified sampling
a variation of random sampling; census data are used to divide the country into four sampling regions. sets of counties and standard metropolitan statistical areas are then randomly selected in proportion to the total national population
push polls
polls taken for the purpose of providing information on an opponet that would lead respondants to vote against that candidate
tracking polls
continuous surveys that enable a campaign to chart its daily rise or fall in support
exit polls
polls conducted at selected polling places on election day
sampling error/margin of error
a measure of the accuracy of a public opinion poll
political party
a group of office holders, candidates, activists, and voters who identify with a group label and seek to elect public office officials who run under that label
governmental party
the office holders and candidates who run under a political party's banner
organizational party
the workers and activists who staff the party's formal organization
party in the electorate
the voters who consider themselves allied or associated with that party
machine
a party organization that recruits its members with tangible incentives and is characterized by a high degree of control over member activity
direct primary
the seletion of party candidates through the ballots of qualified voters rather than at party nomination conventions
civil service laws
these acts removed the staffing of the bureaucracy from political parties and created a professional bureaucracy filled through competition
issue oriented politics
politics that focuses on specific issues rather than on party, candidate, or other loyalties
ticket-split
to vote for candidates of different parties for various offices in the same election
coalition
a group of interests or organizations that join forces for the purpose of electing public officials
national party platform
a statement of the general and specific philosophy and policy goals of a political party, usually promulgated at the national convention
national convention
a party conclave (meeting) held in the presidental election year for the purpose of nominating a presidental and vice presidental tickt and adopting a platform
think tank
institutional collection of policy oriented researchers and academics who are sources of policy ideas
party identification
a citizen's personal affirnity for a political party usually exrpessed by his or her tendency to vote for the candidates of that party
third partyism
the tendency of third parties to arise with some regularity in a nominally two party system
proportional representation
a voting system that apportions legislative seats according to the percentage of the vote won by a particular political party
electorate
citizens eligible to vote
mandate
a command, indicated by an electorate's votes, for the elected officials to carry out their platforms
retrospective judgement
a voter's evaluation of the performance of the party in power
prospective judgement
a voter's evauation of a candidate based on what he or she pledges to do about an issue if elected
closed primary
election in which only a party's registered voters are eligible to vote
primary election
election in which voters decide which of the candidates within a party will represent the party in the general election
open primary
a primary in which party members independents and sometimes members of the other party are allowed to vote
crossover voting
participation in which the primary of a party with which the voter is not affiliated
raiding
an organized attempt by voters of one party to influence the primary results of the other party
runoff primary
a secondary primary election between the two candidates receiving the greatest number of votes in ther first primary
non partisan primary
a primary used to select candidates regardless of party affiliation
general election
election in which voters decide which candidates will actually fill elective public offices
initiative
an election that allows citizens to propose legislation and submit it to the state electorate for popular vote
referendum
an election whereby the state legislatures submits proposed legislation to the states for approval
regional primary
a proposed system in which the country would be divided into five or six geographic areas and all states in each region would hold their presidental rimary elections on the same days
front loading
the tendency of states to choose an early date on the primary calander
unit rule
a traditional party practice under which the majority of a state delegations can force the minority to vote for its candidate
superdelegate
delegate added to the democratic party's national converntion that is reserved for an elected official
electoral college
representatives of each state who cast the final ballots that actually elect the president
elector
mmember of the electoral college chosen by methods determined in each state
party realignment
a shifting of party coalition groupings in the electorate that remains in place for several elections
critical election
an election signals a party realignment through voter polorization around new issues
secular realignment
the gradual rearrangement of party coalitions based more on demographic shifts than on shocks to the political system
gerrymandering
the legislative process through which the majority party in each statehouse tries to assure that the maximum number of representatives from its political party can be elected to congress through the redrawing of legislative districts
midterm election
election that takes place in the middle of a presidental term
turnout
the proportion of the voting age public that votes
ticket splitting
voting for candidates of different parties for various offices in the same election
nomination campaign
the part of a political campaign aimed at winning a primary election
general election campaign
that part of the political campaign aimed at winning a general election
personal campaign
that part of a political campaign concerned with presenting the candidate's public image
organizational campaign
that part of a political campaign involved in fund riasing, literature distribution, and all other activities not directly involving the candidate
media campaign
that part of a political campaign in which the candidate reaches out to the voters, in person or via the media to create a positive impression and gain votes
voter canvass
the process by which a campaign reaches individualvoters, either by door to door solicitation or by telephone
get out the vote
a push at the end of a political campaign to encourage supporters to go to the polls
campaign manager
the individual with the candidate and coordinates the many different aspects of the campaign
campaign consultant
the private sector professionals and firms who sell to a candidate the technologies, services, and strategies required to get that candidate elected
pollster
a professional who takes public opinion surveys that guide political campaigns
direct mailer
a professional who supervises a political campaign direct-mail fund-raising strategies
communication director
the person who develops the overall media strategy for the candidate, blending the free press coverage with the paid tv, radio, and mail media
press secretary
the individual charged with interacting and communicatng with journalists on a daily basis
media consultant
a professional who produces candidates television, radio, and print advertisements
paid media
political advertisements purchased for a candidate's campaign
media consultant
a professional who produces candidates television, radio, and print advertisements
paid media
political advertisements purchased for a candidate's campaign
free media
coverage of a candidate's campaign by the news media
positive ad
advertising on behalf of a candidate that stresses the candidate's qualifications, family and issue positions without reference to the opponet
negative ad
advertising on behalf of a candidate that attacks the oppoonet's platform of character
contrast ad
ad that compares the records and proposals of the candidates with a bias towards the sponser
spot ad
television advertising on behalf of a candidate that is broadcast in a sixy, thirty, of ten second intervals
inoculation ad
advertising that attempts to counteract an anticipated attack fro mthe opposition before the attack is launched
candidate debate
forum in which political candidates face each other to discuss their platforms, records, and characters
political action committee (PAC)
federally mandated, officially registered fund raising comittee that represents interest groups in the political process
hard money
legally specified and limited contributions that are clearly regulated by the federal election campaign act and by the federal election comission
soft money
the virtually unregulated money funneled by individuals and political committees through state and local parties
yellow journalism
a form of newspaper publishing in vogue in the late 19th century that featured pictures, comics, color and sensationalized oversimplified news coverage
muckraking
a form of journalism, in vogue in the early 20th century concerned with reforming government and buisness conduct (digging up "dirt" on buisnesses and government)
print press
the traditional form of mass media, compromising newspapers, magazines, and journals
electronic media
the broadcast and cable media including television, radio, and the Internet
network
an associating of broadcast stations (radio and television) that share programming through a financial arrangement
affiliates
local television stations that carry the programming of a national network
wire service
an electronic delivery of news gathered by the enws service's correspondents and sent to all member news media organizations
press release
a document offering an official comment or position
press briefing
a relatively restricted session between a press secretary or aide and the press
press conference
an unrestricted session between an elected official and the press
on background
information provided to a journalist that will not be attributed to a named source
deep background
information provided to a journalist that will not be attributed to any source
off the record
information provided to a journalist that will not be released to the public
on the record
information provided toa journalist that will be released and attributed by name to the source
new york times co. v. sullivan
the supreme court concluded that actual malice must be proved to support a finding of libel against a public figure
media effects
the influence of news sources on public opinion
content regulation
government attempts to regulate the electronic media
equal time rule
the rule that requires broadcast stations to sell air time equally to all candidates in a political campaign if they choose to sell it to any
fairness doctrine
rule in effect from 1949 to 1985 requiring broadcasters to cover events adequately and to present contrasting views on important public issues
social capital
the myriad relationships that individuals enjoy that facilitate the resolution of community problems through collective action
civic virtue
the tendency to form small scale associations for the public good
interest groups
organized groups that try to influence the public policy
disturbance theory
political scientists david b. truman's theory that interest groups form in part to counteract the efforts of other groups
public interest groups
organizations that seek a collective good that will not selectively and materially benefit group members
economic interest groups
a group with the primary purpose of promoting the financial interests of its members
political action comittees
federally mandated officially registered fund raising comittees that erpresent interest groups in the political process
lobbyist
interest group representative who seeks to influence legislation that will benefit his or her organization through political persuasion
trade association
a group that represents a specific industry
lobbying
the activities of a group or organization that seeks to influence legislation and persuade political leaders to support the group's position
patrons
persons who finance groups
collective good
something of value that cannot be withheld from a nonmember of a group, for example, a tax write-off or a better enviornment
free rider problem
potential members fail to join a group because they can get the benefit or collective good sought by the group without contribution the effort